Virunga National Park

Diyila Dagbani Wikipedia
Yiɣi chaŋ yaɣa shɛli Yiɣi chaŋ vihigu ni
Virunga National park
national park
Di pilli ni1925 Mali niŋ
Zuliya wuhibuParc national des Virunga Mali niŋ
TiŋaDemocratic Republic of the Congo Mali niŋ
Din be shɛli polonaNorth Kivu, Orientale Province Mali niŋ
Dini be shɛliDemocratic Republic of the Congo Mali niŋ
Tiŋgbaŋ yaɣili calinli0°30′0″S 29°30′0″E Mali niŋ
ToondaantaliInstitut Congolais pour la Conservation de la Nature Mali niŋ
IUCN protected areas categoryIUCN category II: National Park Mali niŋ
Ŋun namAlbert I of Belgium Mali niŋ
Significant eventlist of World Heritage in Danger Mali niŋ
Heritage designationUNESCO World Heritage Site, Ramsar site Mali niŋ
World Heritage soliWorld Heritage selection criterion (vii), World Heritage selection criterion (viii), World Heritage selection criterion (x) Mali niŋ
Significant placeGoma Mali niŋ
Lahabaya dundɔŋ din mali dihitabilihttps://virunga.org Mali niŋ
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Virunga National Park nyɛla tiŋgbani paaki din be Albertine Rift din be wulunpuhili la zaŋ ti Democratic Republic of Congo. Di daa pilila yuuni 1924, di yɛligibu polo, di nyɛla yɛliga kamani 680 m (2,230 ft) Semliki River Valley nyela 5,109 m (16,762 ft) zaŋ chan Rwenzori Mountains ku kpuɣi North to South yɛliginsim nyɛla din paai 300 km (190 mi), di bala daansi ni Uganda mini Rwanda East nti gbaai yaɣa kamani 8,090 km2 (3,120 sq mi)[1].

Volcanoe nima dibaayi m-be paaki maa puuni, dini n-nyɛ, Mount Nyirakongo mini Nyamuragira.[2] Di gba nyɛla din mali nuu timbu zaŋ jɛndi National park maa ni binkɔbiri mini binniɛn' shɛŋa kɔlimbu polo. Binkɔbiri ni tihi balibu ban kalinli gari tuhupihita zuɣu m-be paaki maa puuni, ka be puuni shɛba nyɛ Alvertine Rift ban kalinli gari tusaata (eastern gorrila) (gorrila beringei) gba pahi be ni n-ti pahi jɛŋsi (golden Monkey) (Cecopithecus kandi).[3]

Yuuni 1979, National paaki ŋɔ daa nyɛla UNESCO nima ni kali shɛli pahi World Heritage site nima la puuni, dama di ni niŋ ka bin'niɛma pam be di ni maa ni di bin'niɛma ŋan gahim ni be ni ko la zuɣu n-ti pahi National paaki ni nyɛ ni ko ka binniɛn' shɛŋa be la zuɣu ni be ni gu ka taɣi kpara ban be di ni la zuɣu.[4] Di nyɛla luɣishɛli dini kali pahi World Heritage site shɛŋa din be barina ni tum 1994 yuuni, domi di ninsali biɛlim ni ku nabira tiŋa maa ni shɛm zuɣu.[5][6]

Siyaasa[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Be pun kpuɣi soya ni be gbi kpam Congo Basin yuma 2000s la. Be nari ŋɔ zuɣu, paaki ŋɔ daa nyɛla ban kpuɣi alikawule ni DRC tingbani zuɣulana ŋun yuli booni Felix Tshisekedi ni Boris Johnson be ni daa laɣim United Nations Climate Change Conference laɣingu din daa niŋ Glasgow tingbani yuuni 2021 la daa che be tooi gu ka taɣi paaki maa chɛŋ tooni. Ni di kpaŋsi tingbana biɛhi'suŋ, gɔmnanti daa bi niŋ zaɣa n-niŋ paaki ŋɔ gulibu puuni ka daa kɔɣi paaki maa puuni luɣ' shɛŋa din mali kpam la silimiin gɔli July 2022. Tullow Oil Plc, TotalEnergies, ENI ni China National Offshore Oil Corporation Ltd (CNOOC) nima daa nyɛla ban bɔri ni be dee soli ka gbi kpam din ni. Tiŋbihi ni duniya laɣinsi kamani, Greenpeace nima kpahiri be zuɣu ni ka wuhiri barina shɛŋa din be tingbani ni salinima biɛrisuŋ saɣimbu ka di nyɛla kpam gbibu zuɣu ŋɔ maa. Ninvuɣ' shɛba ban yina ti tuhiri ni niriba baŋ yɛlli ŋɔ nyɛla be ni varisiri shɛba social media zuɣu.

Taarihi[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Yuuni 1920s palim palim, European conservation movement proponents nima n-daa nam haŋkali shɛli din wuhi ni bɛ gu ka taɣi yaɣa din be northeastern Belgian Congo, di shɛŋa n-nyɛ, Victor Van straelen, Jean Massart ni Jean-Marie Descheid.

Din daa niŋ ka Albert National park nam yuuni 1925 silimiin' gɔli din pahiri anahi yuuni puuni ka di nyɛ Congo nima tuuli National paaki, di daa nyɛla din nina kuli kpa tabibi yɛltɔɣa zaŋ kpa tingbani biɛhigu ka di niya nyɛ ni bɛ bɔhim ka gu ka taɣi mɔɣini binkɔbiri ni bɛ ni boli shɛli “ primitive” hunter- gatherer African pygmies la. Yuuni 1926 puuni, Dersceid n-daa nyɛ Belgian mission nima tuuli kpɛma n-zaŋ ba chaŋ Cartograph Albert paaki ni, din polo galisim nyɛ kilomita kɔbishinahi (500km) (190 sq mi) din be Mount karimbu mini Mount Mikeno valcanoe nima shee. Di yaɣ' shɛli dini daa gu ka taɣi maa daa nyɛla Virunga National park nima ni daa yɛligi shɛli yuuni 1929, din nyɛ Virunga Mountain mini Rutshuru terrotary yaɣ' shɛŋa ni daa pahi di puuni nti pahi Lake Edward wulinluhili yaɣili. Di yɛliŋ daa nyɛla 2'920.98km (1,127.80 sq mi) di piligu ni ka daa yɛligiri yimyim yuun' shɛŋa din daa pahi maa.[7] [8][9]Tiŋ'bihi daa nyɛla ban kɔŋ bi pɔliti di niŋbu ni, ka be daa yi yaɣ'shɛli din daa gu ka taɣi maa.[10] [11][12]1930s mini 1955 yuuni naabu ni ha, Rwandophone niriba ban kalinli yiɣisi 85, 000 daa vu m-miri tiŋa din yuli booni Masisi din be North Kivu[13].

1934 yuuni, institute des parcs Nationaux du Congo Belge n-daa nyɛ din gbubi paaki nima zaa din be Belgian Congo. [14]Yuuni[15] 1930s mini 1961 sunsuuni Albert National park tuma pam daa nyɛla Belgian tabiibi nira ni tum shɛli, ni Gaston-Francois de Witte ni daa niŋ din pahiri ayi. Be daa nyɛla ban bɔhim ka deei Zoological Specimens ban nyɛ mɔɣini binkɔbiri n-zaŋ ti Musée Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique nima[16][17][18]; ka go n-gili bala kam ban be yaɣili maa; ka bɔhim volcano mini fossils tuma baŋsim.

Yuuni 1950s bahigu ni ha, Tusti naɣ' kpariba mini bɛ niɣi daa nyɛla ban kpe paaki maa puuni n-ti saɣim binkɔbiri maa biɛhigu shee ka di paai 3,000m (9,800 ft), lala bini ŋɔ n-daa che ka niriba tɛhi ni dini n-daa varisi kpara ban be paaki maa ni n-kpɛhi yɔɣu[19].

Tiŋgbana zalisi daa nyɛla bɛ ni labi taɣi shɛli Belgian Congo ni daa deei di maŋa sulinsi ka liɛbi Republic of the Congo n-naai, ka bɛ daa mɔli ni tiŋgbani maa pa nyɛla bɛ tiŋgbani (Congo) ni su shɛli. Tiŋkpannima ka di daa be viɛli n-ti. Piɛ'gɔbo zaligu ni be saɣi ti daa nyɛla bɛ ni kpaŋsi yaɣ' shɛli bɛ ni gu ka taɣi maa puuni. Yuuni 1969 puuni, paaki dibaayi ŋɔ daa nyɛla bɛ ni laɣim shɛli taba ka bɔli li Virunga National park, din daa leei UNESCO World Heritage site yuuni 1979.

Yuuni 1996 puuni, National park ŋɔ daa nyɛla din daa kali pahi Ramsar site of international importance.

Yuuni 2011, British Soco international tumayilinima daa nyɛla ban nyɛ soli ni bɛ kpi kpam n-gili paaki maa kpansi mini di yaɣ' kara ni.

Gɔmnanti kpambaliba daa nyɛla ban tabiri sɔŋdi tuun' shɛŋa Soco international mission nima ni niŋda amaa ka paaki maa fukumsinima nyɛ ban zaɣisiri li. Dini daa niŋ ka nangbankpeeni niŋ ti yaɣi, bɛ daa kari la paaki maa ni naa yuuni 2014. Di ni daa niŋ ka ayirimonima tɔ, tumaduzuɣu maa daa na chɛla tuma, ka daa bi lahi bɔri ni bɛ pili lala bini tatabo World Heritage site maa polo ni[20].

Zaŋ chaŋ yuuni 2016, mɔɣ' kara dibaanahi daa nyɛla din gbi ka di daa nyɛ din tiri daabilim bihi din na bi zooi niɣilimbuɣim ka sɔŋsi tinkpansi ban kalinli nyɛ 200,000 pam[21].

Linjimanima zabili[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Armed conflict[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Tum 1990s piligu ni, yaɣili din daa gu ka taɣi maa daa nyɛla din nyɛ sɔŋsim

din be political turmoil m-be African Great Lakes yaɣili. Zaŋ jɛndi Rwandan genocide maa polo, niriba pam daa nyɛla tɔbu ni kari shɛba n-kpɛhi Kivu yaɣili, ka linjimanima nyɛ ban pahi pam. Congo tuuli tɔbu mini di tɔbu din pahi ayi nyɛla din daa tuɣi nti pili yaɣili maa. Niriba ban daa gɔri paaki maa ni daa nyɛla ban daa nyɛ muɣisigu ka bɛ daa lahi ku paaki maa ni niriba mini binkɔbiri. Niriba ban kalinli daa yiɣisi kamani 850,000 ban daa be paaki maa ni daa nyɛla tɔbu maa ni ŋme shɛba yuuni 1994. Niriba paai 40,000 n-daa nyɛ ban kperi paaki maa puuni biɛɣukulo kam nti yuuni bɔri dari mini bindira ka daa ŋma tihi pam yaɣili maa[22].

Yuuni 1994, Virunga National park daa nyɛla din pahi List of World Heritage Danger puuni[23].

Congo tɔbu din pahi ayi maa ni daa naai, zabili zaŋ chaŋ paaki maa ni niriba mini rebel groups daa tuɣi mi; paaki maani tumtumdiba ban kalinli daa yiɣisi 80 daa nyɛla bɛ ni ku shɛba zaŋ chaŋ 1996 mini 2003 yuuni sunsuuni[24]. armed rebel groups nima pam n-tumda paaki maa ni nti pahi Democratic Forces zaŋ ti Liberation of Rwanda mini National Congress zaŋ ti Defence of the People (FDLR). Ka Mikeno sector of Virunga National Park daa ti bahi deei di sulinsi zaŋ chaŋ December gɔli ni yuuni 2006 mini January gɔli ni yuuni 2009[25].

Yuuni 2005, European Commission (EC) maa daa bɔla ʒe' n gama laɣingu ni bɛ zaŋ bɛ kpalanzuya gbuni tabba zaŋ chaŋ tingbani maa Gɔmnanti mini British non-governmental organisation African Conservation Fund. Ka ban daa na yɔli deei maa su paaki maa yɛllikam tum yuuni 2010. Vaabu kɔbiga puuni vaabu pihinii (80%) ka EC nima daa ŋmaai bahi zaŋ chaŋ paaki tuma polo. Paaki maa gu ka taɣi kpaŋmaŋa daa nyɛla lijin'tali yuun' shɛŋa din daa dɔli yaaŋa din yɛn che ka di varisi armed rebel laɣinsi mini poachers ka bɛ ni tooi kpe na paaki maa ni ti tum tuma. Paaki maa ni tumtumdiba daa nyɛla ban daa bɔhim linjimanima dahimbu nti pahi bi'dibinɛma din nyɛ zaɣ' maŋa[26]. Ka bɛ mini linjimanima maa mini security service nima daa laɣim tumda. Lala so' chibisi maa,daa nyɛla bɛ ni galim shɛli ka yɛli ni “Militarization of Conservation " ka bɛ daa yɛli ni lala maa zuɣu n-che ka tiŋ'bihi maa nya damli di nyaaŋa ha. Tinsi kamani Mbuti maa, din daa na dɔ tingbani maa ni ka be paaki maa ni din nyɛ bindirigu mini biɛhigu shee daa nyɛla bɛ ni yihi shɛli ni yaa, bee ka a zaŋ a nyɛvili pa talima bee ka armed park rangers ŋɔ gbaai a kpari bee ka bɛ ku a. Biɛhigu taɣi zali dahinshɛli daa nyɛla linjimanima tuma yɛltɔɣa din daa zilisira ni bɛ nyɛla ban sɔŋdi ninvuɣ'shɛba bɛ ni bɔli armed mobilization of militias la[27]. Ninvuɣ'shɛba ban daa bi gbɛri paaki maa ni, tiŋ'bia bee tɔbu ni ŋme shɛba na zaa daa kuli dahi la pukparilim polo, piɛli gɔbu, zahim gbahibu, sala pibu mini di gbibu bɛ biɛhigu puuni, di mi zaa daa nyɛla tuun'shɛŋa din bi niŋ kamaata.

yɛla a daa kUnitedaNations Security Council nima sani na yuuni 2010 , a u polom karmed gruupuaima ma80% bɛ bɔ gubu tioba amaa ka maa gubu nfarigu shɛli daa nyɛli zaŋ jɛndi zaŋ hpa tuun' sɣɛŋa din bɛ n. maa i np ohŋ

Lahabali ti n lahabali dUS$ 28-30 miliyɔŋ yuuni puuni. accusedsu fu wuhiyael ni kɔbiga puuni vaabu pihinii (ling) sala shɛli G ma tinpuuni nima ni daa mali kuri bɛ bukaatanima daa nyɛla din daa yiri paaki maa napadin zaani laɣirindin yiɣisi rely on farming, zaani Ban daa gu tiŋa maa gubu ni di taɣibu tumayilinima mini laɣinsi ban daa be tiŋa maa ni zaa daa zooi la ŋme n-di toli nima mini ninvuɣi zuli daa nyɛla bɛ ni daa niŋdi shɛli ni bɛ nya liɣiri[28].

Kpaŋmaŋa din be biɛhigu taɣibu nyɛla din mali nimbiɛri, shɛhira kamani di ni daa niŋ ka puri din be Kibirizi wurim ka linjimanima mini paaki maa ni guliba daa nyɛla bɛ ni zaŋ shɛba bahi ka bɛ gindi paaki maa yaɣa zaa, niriba daa nyɛla ban lɔ bɛ sompɔya yi paaki maa ni n-chaŋ katiŋa ti lu FDLR nima nuuni, shɛli polo bɛ ni ni tooi nya polo bila haayi.

Tinkpanmbila maa daa nyɛla din lahi ka nia viɛla n-ti linjimanima maa mini paaki maa fukumsinima maa, tɔbu daa nyɛla din lu yuuni 2015, di ni daa niŋ ka tinkpan'laɣingu shɛli din yuli booni Mai-Mai group din be Binza (North Bwisha) ban daa bɔri ni bɛ labi deei yaɣili maa sulinsi, ka bɛ nia daa nyɛ ni bɛ labisi zahim tuma nima na, ka che ka niriba maa labi nti ku paaki maa ni fukumsinima maa ni yino ka ku Linjimanima maa ninvuɣ'pia ni yini n-chani pia ni anu zuɣu[29].

Ranger nima anu ka bɛ daa ku yuuni 2017 August gɔli puuni m-miri Lake Edward militias tɔbu maa ni. Ranger nima anu ni drooba ka bɛ daa lahi ku yuuni 2018 April gɔli ni. [30]Tum armed conflict maa piligu, armed group daa nyɛla ban ku ninvuɣ'kɔbiga ni pisopɔin ni anu (175) rangers ban be paaki maa ni hali ni 2018 yuuni April gɔli ni. [31]2018 May gɔli puuni, ranger daa nyɛla ŋun kɔŋ o nyɛvili di ni daa niŋ ka o bɔri ni o sɔŋ niriba ayi shɛba bɛ ni daa zu. [32]Bɛ daa ti nyɛla bɛ ni yooi shɛba ka bɛ niŋ ba shɛli. Binshɛŋa din daa dɔli di nyaaŋa, paaki maa daa nyɛla din kpari zaŋ ti saamba 2018 yuuni june gɔli ni hali 2019 February gɔli ni[33][34].

Yuuni 2020 April gɔli puuni, buɣisibu, paaki maa ni rangers Niriba pia ni ayi ka Militias dabba maa ban daa dɔli tiŋ'bihi maa ni bɛ ku[35]. Yaha yuuni 2021 puuni January gɔli puuni armed men daa nyɛla ban ku kamani rangers niriba ayɔbu ka daa ti shɛba dansi ka shɛba daa kuli do paaki maa puuni[36][37].

2021 puuni, February gɔli biɛɣu pishi ni ayi dali, Italy daambolo zaŋ ti DRC ban daa gɔri ni Food Programm kamani 15 kilomita zaŋ chaŋ Goma wulinpuhili polo, Luca Attanasio, nti pahi Italian Linjimanima pirinsi karachi Vittorio lacovacci ni Moustapha Milambo Congo drooba daa nyɛla bɛ ni daa ŋmɛ shɛba marafa kuba, di ni daa niŋ ka Militias nima maa ni yino zu ba ka zaŋ ba na paaki maa puuni nti paai paaki maa ni rangers ban daa tooi faai niriba anahi bahi[38].





joografi[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Virunga National Park nyɛla din be is Congo − Nile watershed yaɣili.Di wulinpuhili polo nyɛla Semliki River basin ni pahi yaɣ' shɛli polo, nti pahi savanna mini montane forest zaŋ ti Albertine Rift. Di nyɛ altitude, lala yaɣili ŋɔ nyɛla puri kamani 680 m (2,230 ft) m-be Puemba River valleypuuni hali ni to Mount Stanley waɣilim tariga din nyɛ 5,109 m (16,762 ft) din be 30 km (19 mi) sunsuuni. National paaki maa sunsuuni yaɣili nyɛla din mali two thirds of Lake Edward hali ni di tin' duli tariga din be di mini Uganda din be nuzaa zuɣu sunsuuni. Fɔliŋ bils din nyɛ 3–5 km (1.9–3.1 mi) yɛlim din dɔli lake's western nangbankpaŋa nyɛla din tuɣi northern mini southern yaɣili national paaki maa puuni. Wulinluhili yaɣili ŋɔ nyɛla din dɔlisi Lake Kivu nangbankpaŋa ka tim Nyamulagira, Nyiragongo mini Mikeno volcanoes nti pahi montane forests din be yaɣa..

Virunga National Park wulinpuhili yaɣili nyɛla din looi ni Uganda's Semuliki park, Rwenzori Mountains National Park maa ni sunsuuni yaɣili ni Queen Elizabeth National Park. Wulinluhili yaɣili nyɛla din mini The Rwanda's Volcanoes National Park ba daansi.

Flora[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Virunga National Park's flora mali la 2,077 tihi ni mɔri balibu, nti 264 tihi ni 230 ni tihi ni.mɛri din be Albertine Rift.[39] Binyɛra din galisi Virunga National Park n-nyɛ tingbani mahili ni mɔri (grasslands) nti pahi papyrus sedge (Cyperus papyrus), jointed flatsedge (C. articulatus), common reed (Phragmites mauritanica), sacaton grasses (Sporobolus consimilis), ambatch (Aeschynomene elaphroxylon), conkerberry (Carissa spinarum), paperbark thorn (Vachellia sieberiana) and kowai fruit (Coccinia grandis).[40][41] ni binbila ( dicots ) kamani African caper (Capparis tomentosa), Maerua species, wild cucurbits, ni nightshades din daa be African elephants (Loxodonta) bina ni din mali soʋlŋsim ni binbila yaɣiribu seed dispersal zaŋ chaŋ mɔri ni.[42]

montane yɔɣu between din be wulinpuhili polo yaɣili zooi la Ficalhoa laurifolia ni Podocarpus milanjianus nti pahi ti' waɣila. African alpine bamboo (Yushania alpina), foremost African redwood (Hagenia abyssinica), (Erica arborea), heather ni mosses din bili taɣi di tiŋgbani sirigibu Senecio min Lobelia [43]

Fauna[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Virunga National Park's faunal species mali la binkobiri 196 (mammals), noonsi 706 (bird) balibu, kom ni binniɛma 109 (reptiles) nti pahi binniɛma ban be kom ni tiŋgbanni 65 amphibians zaŋ kana yuuni 2012.[39]

mammals[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Binyara ban be national park n-nyɛ mountain gorilla (G. b. beringei), common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), golden monkey, red-tailed monkey (Cercopithecus ascanius), Dent's mona monkey (C. denti), blue monkey (C. mitis), Hamlyn's monkey (C. hamlyni), De Brazza's monkey (C. neglectus), Central African red colobus (Procolobus foai), mantled guereza (Colobus guereza), olive baboon (Papio anubis) and grey-cheeked mangabey (Lophocebus albigena).[39][44][45][46]


African bush elephant (Loxodonta africana), hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) and African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) inhabit the national park's central sector.[41] Okapi (Okapia johnstoni), blue duiker (Philantomba monticola), bay duiker (Cephalophus dorsalis), Weyns's duiker (C. weynsi), yellow-backed duiker (C. silvicultor), water chevrotain (Hyemoschus aquaticus), red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus), aardvark (Orycteropus afer) and bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus) were recorded in the northern sector in 2008.[46] Harnessed bushbuck (T. scriptus) and giant forest hog (Hylochoerus meinertzhageni) are present in the southern sector.[45] All of the topi (Damaliscus lunatus jimela) cluster to the south of Lake Edward in the Ishasha Flats region, and regularly cross the border into Uganda.[47][48][49] Other ungulates present include Ugandan kob (Kobus kob thomasi), waterbuck (K. ellipsiprymnus), and common warthog (Phacochoerus africanus).[50][51]

Virunga National Park together with the adjacent Queen Elizabeth National Park forms a "Lion Conservation Unit".[52] The area is considered a potential lion (Panthera leo) stronghold, if poaching is curbed and prey species recover.[51] In the national park's northern sector, African leopard (P. pardus pardus), marsh mongoose (Atilax paludinosus), giant pangolin (Smutsia gigantea), tree pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata), Lord Derby's scaly-tailed squirrel (Anomalurus derbianus), Boehm's bush squirrel (Paraxerus boehmi), western tree hyrax (Dendrohyrax dorsalis), Emin's pouched rat (Cricetomys emini) and checkered elephant shrew (Rhynchocyon cirnei) were recorded during surveys in 2008.[46]

Reptiles[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Semliki River mali biɛhigu shee zaŋti Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). Bɛ daa nyɛla bɛ pam Lake Edwards yuuni 1988 tuuli.[53]

Noonsi[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Ban be Albertine Rift's endemic birds, Rwenzori turaco, Rwenzori batis, Archer's ground robin, red-throated alethe, Kivu ground thrush, collared apalis, mountain masked apalis, dusky crimson-wing, Shelley's crimsonwing, red-faced woodland warbler, stripe-breasted tit, blue-headed sunbird, regal sunbird, Rwenzori double-collared sunbird, handsome spurfowl nti pahi strange weaver n nyɛ ban be Virunga National Park's southern bɛ ni daa niŋ vihigu yuuni 2004. noonsi ban ka ni n-nyɛ Wahlberg's eagle, African goshawk, African hobby, harrier hawk, common buzzard, mountain buzzard, hadeda ibis, grey-crowned crane, black-and-white-casqued hornbill, black-billed turaco, African olive pigeon, tambourine dove, blue-spotted wood dove, red-eyed dove, brown-necked parrot, red-chested cuckoo, olive long-tailed cuckoo, barred long-tailed cuckoo, Klaas's cuckoo, Diederik cuckoo, blue-headed coucal, Narina trogon, white-headed wood hoopoe, white-necked raven, white-tailed crested flycatcher, African paradise flycatcher, white-eyed slaty flycatcher, African dusky flycatcher, white-tailed blue flycatcher, mountain oriole, speckled mousebird, cinnamon-chested bee-eater, grey-throated barbet, yellow-billed barbet, western tinkerbird, yellow-rumped tinkerbird, cardinal woodpecker, olive woodpecker, black saw-wing, Angola swallow, Alpine swift, mountain greenbul, yellow-whiskered greenbul, common bulbul, white-starred robin, Archer's ground robin, white-browed robin-chat, African stonechat, rufous thrush, African thrush, olive thrush, grassland pipit, cinnamon bracken warbler, black-faced rufous warbler, mountain yellow warbler, brown woodland warbler, green sandpiper, Chubb's cisticola, banded prinia, chestnut-throated apalis, grey-backed camaroptera, white-browed crombec, black-throated wattle-eye, chinspot batis, mountain illadopsis, grey-chested illadopsis, olive sunbird, bronze sunbird, malachite sunbird, collared sunbird, variable sunbird, yellow white-eye, Mackinnon's shrike, Doherty's bushshrike, Lühder's bushshrike, northern puffback, mountain sooty boubou, tropical boubou, narrow-tailed starling, Sharpe's starling, baglafecht weaver, black bishop, grey-headed nigrita, common waxbill, black-headed waxbill, bronze mannikin, black and white mannikin, pin-tailed whydah, African citril, streaky seedeater ni thick-billed seedeater.[54]

Zuliya pubu[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Children around a health care centre
Settlements at the edge of the Nyiragongo crater
Ethnic groups in and around Virunga National Park

Zuliya pubu din beni ni din gili Virunga National Park n-nyɛ:

Lahabali Churi[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Virunga lahibali shɛli din sabi sɔŋ nyɛla din sabi Virunga National park rangers tuma mini British oil company Soco International tuun' shɛŋa bɛ ni tum zaŋ kpa paaki maa polo. Ndakasi, kparili ŋun yi paaki maa ni na, daa nyɛla ŋun be television series mini sinii nima puuni, nti pahi Netflix lahabali shɛŋa din sabi sɔŋ maa.

Lihi pahi[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

.Augustin Kambale[63].

.Centre National d'Appui au Développement et à la Participation populaire[64].

.Deforestation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo[65].

.Eugène Rutagarama[66].

.iGorilla[67].

.List of birds of the Democratic Republic of the Congo[68].

.Tourism in the Democratic Republic of the Congo[69].

.Virunga (film)[70].






Kundivihira[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

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