Palmyra

Diyila Dagbani Wikipedia
Palmyra
ancient city, ruins, Ancient Greek archaeological site
KaliAncient Greece Mali niŋ
TiŋaSyria Mali niŋ
Capital ofPalmyrene Empire Mali niŋ
Din be shɛli polonaTadmur Mali niŋ
Located in/on physical featureSyrian Desert Mali niŋ
Tiŋgbaŋ yaɣili calinli34°33′1″N 38°16′11″E Mali niŋ
Significant eventlist of World Heritage in Danger, UNESCO World Heritage Site record modification, Siege of Palmyra Mali niŋ
Wuhigi,kpihimbu, dabisili1929 Mali niŋ
Heritage designationWorld Heritage Site Mali niŋ
World Heritage soliWorld Heritage selection criterion (i), World Heritage selection criterion (ii), World Heritage selection criterion (iv) Mali niŋ
Category for mapsCategory:Maps of Palmyra Mali niŋ
Map

E-Class

Palmyra (/ˌpælˈmaɪrə/; Palmyrene: 𐡶𐡣𐡬𐡥𐡴‎ ("Image of city name written in Palmyrene script") Tadmor; Arabic: تَدْمُر Tadmur) nyɛla daadaa tiŋa din na be Homs Governorate, Syria. Kurimbuni ha Neolithic saha, ka sabbu millennium BC din pahiri buyi boli di yuli. Palmyra nyɛ taɣibu balibu pam poi ka naan yi ti leei Roman Empire dini first century AD.

Tiŋgbani ŋɔ yɛligiri la caravans daabiligu puuni; Palmyrenes yuli dula saha shɛli kɔhigoriba ni daa ʒini baɣili Silk Road ka niŋdi bɛ kɔhimma Roman Empire zaa. Palmyra ariziki ŋɔ chɛ ka bɛ mɛ taarihi nima pam zali, ka maniColonnade dintibigi ŋɔ, Bel Tempuli, ni tower tombs din gahim. Be nama biɛhigu, Palmyrenes laɣim la Amorites, Arameans, ni Laribaawanima. Yiŋa ŋɔ ni binyɛra daa mɛmi doli be zuliya, ka ban be ni noli ni yɛltɔɣa nyɛ Palmyrene Aramaic, Western Middle Aramaic bali shɛli, ka lee mali Koine Greek niŋdi daabiligim. Greco-Roman taɣaada wuhi la Palmyra taɣaada, din wuhiri bɔmbu mini mɛbu eastern mini western kali ni. Ban be tiŋa ŋɔ ni jɛmdi la local Semitic, Mesopotamian, nti pahi Laribaawa binjɛmda.

Yuun kobisita din gari la, Palmyra yuli daa nyɛla din du. Di yaa daa dula zuɣusaa 260s polo, dini daa niŋ ka Palmyrene maa Odaenathus nyaŋ Sasanian emperor Shapur I. queen regent Zenobia n daa ti naa ŋɔ nasara, ŋun daa zabi Rome ka zali Palmyrene Empire. 273 saha, Roman emperor Aurelian daa saɣim la tiŋgbani ŋɔ, ka Diocletian daa labi neeli zaɣi bila. Palmyrenes deei la Christianity yuun kobisi nahi saha ka daa deei musulinsi daadiini (Islam) yuun shɛŋa din nyɛ 7th-century Rashidun Caliphate, din nyaaŋa be daa taɣi Palmyrene mini Greek noli ni yɛltɔɣa ti Arabic.

Poi AD 273, Palmyra daa deei bɛ maŋsulinsi ka daa zaŋ bɛ maŋ pahi Roman province of Syria, ka laɣingu din nyɛ Greek city-state daa tim nuu ni be siyaasa tali yuun kobishii AD saha. Tiŋ ŋɔ daa leei la Roman colonia yuun kobisita saha, ka naan yi lee daabiligu shee 260. Di ni daa saɣim yuma 273 nyaaŋa, Palmyra Byzantines zaɣi bila ka naan yi ti niŋ tiŋ'bobigu din laɣim taba. Timurids ni daa saɣim li nyaaŋa yuma 1400 saha,ka di daa niŋ tiŋkpaŋa.Franci Talahi nima sulinsi saha yuuni 1932, Ban be din ni daa yimi kuli tiŋkpaŋa di yuli booni Tadmur, ka lala daadaa yaɣili ŋɔ daa leei binkura gbi n bo sheei. Syrian daadamanima tɔbu din daa ŋmɛ yuuni 2015, Musulinsi daadiini tiŋa (IS) daa saɣim daadaa tiŋ ŋɔ pam, ka Syrian Army daa labi yiɣisi li silimin goli 2 March yuuni 2017.

Bachimaa ni yi luɣ'shɛlina[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

"Tadmor" yɛltɔɣa pili la millennium BC din pahiri buyi la saha; eighteenth century BC saabu din yi Mari din sabi cuneiform puuni sai li mi "Ta-ad-mi-ir", ka Assyrian sabbu din nyɛ eleventh century BC sabi li "Ta-ad-mar". Aramaic Palmyrene maŋ maŋ sabili la yuya ayi ; TDMR (i.e., Tadmar) ni TDMWR (i.e., Tadmor). lala yuya dibaa ayi ŋɔ ni yi shɛli na bɛ neei ; buɣisibu din zani dɛdɛ.kaAlbert Schultens saɣi ti li zaŋli mi ŋmahindi "dobin tiya", tamar (Tɛmplet:Script/Hebrew),[note 1]n mali li buɣisiri kpukpali tihi din be tiŋa ŋɔ ni.

Greek yuli din nyɛ Παλμύρα (Latinized Palmyra) Pliny ŋun nyɛ kpɛma ni daa sabi shɛli tuuli 1st century AD.[5] ka bɛ mali li kuri bukaata Greco-Roman dunia.Di mali la dihi tabili ni ka dam "Palmyra" yila "Tadmor" ni na ka ban sabiri yɛltɔɣa mali gbunni dibaa ayi ti li, yiŋga n nyɛ ni Tadmor ka bɛ niɣim. Schultens mi yɛliya, Ni "Palmyra" naan tooi nyɛla di yila "Tadmor" kɔriŋfahili puni na, din yirina lahabli din bi sabi doya "Talmura", ka bɛ taɣi "Palmura" Latin bachinima sabbu ni palma (date "palm"), n zaŋdi ŋmahindi tiŋ ŋɔ nibkpukpali tihi, ka yuli ŋɔ naan yi ti taɣi "Palmyra". Yuli din pahiri buyi ka Jean Starcky, saɣi ti li wuhiri mi ni "Tadmor" ka bɛ lɛbigi n yɛlari ni di gbunni nyɛla kpupkali tia), din yina Greek bachi puni zaŋti palm, "palame".

Pahigu lahi zaŋdi li ŋmahindi Syriac tedmurtā (ܬܕܡܘܪܬܐ) "miracle", hence tedmurtā "object of wonder", din yirina dmr "to wonder"; Franz Altheim n daa boli din boŋɔ ni Ruth Altheim-Stiehl (1973), amaa Jean Starcky (1960) mini Michael Gawlikowski (1974) daa zaɣisi li.Michael Patrick O'Connor (1988) gba yɛliya ni lala yuli ŋɔ "Palmyra" mini "Tadmor" yila Hurrian language ni na.[6] kamani shɛhira, o zaŋli mi ŋmahindi buɣisibu din ku tooi ti gbunni (represented in the addition of -d- to tamar and -ra- to palame).o yɛltɔɣa wuhiya, "Tadmor" yila Hurrian bachi din nyɛ, tad ("to love") n ti pahi Hurrian mid vowel din yirina (mVr) formant mar.Ŋmali, o yɛltɔɣa maa wuhiya, "Palmyra" yila Hurrian bachi din nyɛ, pal ("to know") din mali mVr formant (mar) la ŋmali.ti

Palmyra Syrian northeast polo, Damascus;di nyɛla tingbani din mali yɛliŋ ni yanima n ti pahi puri ka pahi Palmyrene tingbani puuni.Tiŋgbani ŋɔ bela kpukpali tihi la ni gili oasis la(di balibu pishi n yi polo). Zo kari yarisi dibaa ayi bela tiŋa ŋɔ ni: dini n-nyɛ northern Palmyrene mountain belt din yi tuduu. polo ni toondini polo Palmyrene zoya din be southwest. Palmyra wulinpuhili mini di wulinluhili mali la Syrian Desert. wadi din pora, al-Qubur, gariti la yaɣili ŋɔ, din zɔri yiri wulinpuhili polo gariti lala tiŋ ŋɔ ni ka naan ui naari toondini polo oasis garichɛ nima la ni. Wadi wulinpuhili polo mali la kom din yirina tiŋgbani na, Efqa.Pliny ŋun nyɛ kpɛma buɣisi la tiŋa ŋɔ yuuni 70s AD tiŋa din yuli du ka be bɔpiɛligu ni, ni din tiŋgbani mali tam, ka kom din yiri tiŋgbani ni ŋɔ na gili li, ka di soŋdi pukpariba ka bɛ kori viɛnyɛla.[note 2]

Tiŋmaa ni mɛ ndolihɛm ni dini be yaɣ'shɛli

Yaɣali ŋɔ din biɛhigu sheei miri Efqa Spring din be   southern bank of Wadi al-Qubur, daa nyɛla neolithic ni pali,[8] tuuli duri daa kpalim mi yina la tuma din daa kana nyaanga.[8] Assyrian duri din daai kpalim nyɛla din be Hellenistic nyaanga.[8] Din bahindi nyaangi ŋɔ daai nyɛla din miri Efqa Spring din be Wadi al-Qubur banki nyaanga;[8] di mali di niribe ka be yaligi hali ni wadi's tudu polo banki first century.[8] Amaa tiŋ ŋɔ dikiya pun nyɛla din gili yaɣali wadi banks,[8] bini daa labi mɛ dikiya shɛŋa Aurelian's saha daa gilila northern-bank section ko.[8][8] Tiŋ ŋɔ mɛbu shɛŋa din teeiri ninvuɣitimsa nyɛla daa nyɛla bini mɛ ntam wadi's northern bank,[8] di puuni n-nyɛ Bel Tempuli, on a tell din daai nyɛ yaɣali ŋɔ tuuli tempuli (bini mi shɛli la Hellenistic temple).[8] Amaa, gbin bo daadaa binkura daa sɔŋasiya ni tell daa nyɛla din tuui be southern bank, ka wadi mii da gmaligi kpa tell tondini polo ni di ti leei temple n ti Palmyra's nyaangi tuuli ni second century piligu urban organization din be north bank.[8] Yaɣa wadi nyaangi polo n daa nyɛ Colonnade kpeeni , Palmyra's 1.1-kilometre-long (0.68 mi) pali daa,[8] din daa gbai Temple of Bel din be wulinpuhili,[8] hali ni Funerary Temple no.86 din be tiŋ ŋɔ wulinluhili polo.[8][8] Di mali la monumental arch di wulunpuhili yaɣali,[8] ni tetrapylon nyɛla din be sunsuuni.[8] Baths of Diocletian din be colonnade nuzaa. Din daa baɣali n daa nyɛ niribe bin beni,[8] Baalshamin Tempuli ,[8] ni Byzantine chochi nima, din daa pahi "Basilica IV", Palmyra's chochi karili zaa.[8] Chochi ŋɔ nyɛla din yina Justinian yuuni ,[8] di wɔɣalim be ka maa 7 metres (23 ft), ka di yɛlim mi nyɛ 27.5 by 47.5 metres (90 by 156 ft).[8]

Nabu Temple ni Roman theater daa nyɛla bini mɛ shɛli colonnade's southern side.[8] Theater ŋɔ nyaanga nyɛla senate duri ni be ni agora kara, triclinium (banquet room) mini Tariff Court.[8] Cross street din be colonnade wulinluhili chani la Camp of Diocletian,[8][8]  Sosianus Hierocles (the Roman governor of Syria in the reign of Diocletian) ni daa mɛ shɛli.[8] Din baɣali n-nyɛ Al-lāt Tempuli ni Damascus Gate.[8]

Daadamanima, bala ni be biɛhigu[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Palmyra Zenobia saha, daa nyɛla din mali niribi gari 200,000 ka bi be tiŋ maa ni. [9]Bini daa kuli mi shɛbi tuuli maa n daa nyɛ Amorites, 2nd millenium BC piligu, millenium maa daa ti yɛn naagi, Arameans daa nyɛla bini yɛli ni shɛb'bɛla tiŋ maa ni. Laribu nima daa nyɛpa ban kpe tiŋ maa ni 1st millenium BC bahigu. Sheikh Zabdibel, ŋun daa soŋ Seleucids Raphia tobu maa ni ( yuuni 217BC) daa nyɛla bini boli so ka o nyɛ commander zaŋ ti ''laribunima ni bali shɛba ban daa kuli koɣi ba maa''. Zabdibel mini o nachimbi daa nyɛla bini daa bi boli shɛba Palmyrenes sabbu maani, amaa ''Zabdibel ''yuli maa nyɛla Palmyrene yuli din daa ti che ka bi yɛli ni lala sheehu ŋo nyɛpa ŋun yi Palmyra na.Laribu ninvuɣ'pala daa nyɛla ban maɣisi ban daa tuu kana maaa, bi daa nyɛla ban toɣisiri Palmyrene balli, ka daa nyɛ ban kuli pahi aristocracy ni. Tiŋ maa daa lahi nyɛla din mali Jewish community; sabbu din be Palmyrene ka be necropolis of Beit She'arim din be Lower Galilee daa nyɛla din wuhi ni bi daa simsi Jews ban be Palmyra. Roman saha maa, Palmyrene niribi daa nyɛla ban deeri Greek yuya amaa Greek birili daa nyɛla ban bi galisi; niribi pam ban daa mali Greek yuya ka daa pa Greeknima daa nyɛla daba shaba bini bahi.Palmyrenes nima daa nyɛla ban je Greeknima, ka daa lihiba tunzunnima, ka daa kuli che ka bi dii bi ʒiini tiŋ maa ni.Umayyad Caliphate saha, Palmyra daa nyɛla Banu Kalb ni kuli be shɛli. Benjamin of Tudela na daa nyɛla ŋun yɛli ni jews niribi daa paagi 2000 12th century maa saha. Palmyra daa nyɛla din labi nyaaŋa dini daa niŋ ka Timur saɣinli yuuni 1400, ka daa nyɛ tinkpaŋ din mali niribi 6,000 20th century piligu Palmyra.

Palmyra zuliyabala ni pɛndoya shɛm

Palmyra niribi daa nyɛla ban yi yaɣa yaɣa na ka bee tiŋ maani, bininyɛ shɛli Aramaic, Laribu ni Amorite yuya zaŋti Palmyrene dundoya, amaa palmyrene ethnicity nyɛla binshɛli din na kuli mali nangban kpeeni. Baŋdiba kamani Andrew M. Smith II, nyɛla balli maa ka di nyɛ din mali shaɣani ni pumpoŋona nationalism, ka yɛli ni ŋun yuya ka o bi buɣisi Palmyrenes bala polo, binshɛli bi maŋmaŋ ni daa bi mi, ka daa yɛli kadama ni shɛhira kani wuhiri biri shɛli Palmyrenes ni daa lihi bi maŋa.

Baŋdibi pam kamani Eivind Seland, daa nyɛla ŋun yɛli ni Palmyrene birili nyɛla binshɛli din be shɛhira ni.

2nd Century tuma De Munitionibus Castrorum daa nyɛla din boli palmyrenes a natio,Latin ni , din Greek ἔθνος (éthnos).Seland daa nyɛla ŋum nya epigraphic shahira shɛli Palmyrenes ni daa che sambanni.Sabbunima daa nyɛla din wuhi ni niribi daa nyɛla ban bɛni, ka ŋolooo daa nyɛ din doli soya ata shɛli sociologist Rogers Brubaker ni zali.Palmyrene ninvuɣ'shɛba ban daa be sambanni daa nyɛla ban daa kuli wuhiri ni bi yila Palmyra na ka daa nyɛ ban toɣisiri Palmyrene balli ka lahi nyɛ ban kuli gbibi bi tiŋ maa adiini hali gba di daa yi ti niŋ ka bini be luɣ'shɛli maa adiini chaŋ ti ŋmani Palmyra dini. Seland daa nyɛla ŋun yɛli ni Palmyra niribi daa nyɛla ban yuli ka bi yi biko ka che bi ʒiʒiinitaba,lala ŋo zuɣu Palmyrene birili daa nyɛla binshaɣu din biɛni. Gbaa yihi Palmyrene birili maa, Aramean bee Arab nya biri shɛŋa taarihi baŋdiba ni ŋme di nangbankpeeni pam; Javier Teixdor daa yɛliya ni ''Palmyra daa nyɛla Aramaen tiŋa ka di nyɛ chrimbu di yi niŋ ka niri yɛli ni di nyɛla Arab (laribu) tiŋa'' ka Yasamin Zahran daa feegi lala ɛltoɣa ŋo ka daa ŋme nangban kpeeni kadama tiŋ maa nima daa yuli la bi maŋ laribunima (Arabs). Baŋdibi pam kamani Udo Hartmann ni Michael sommer, tiŋ maa nima daa nyɛla Arab ni Aramean bala din daa niŋ nangban yini; bi daa nyɛla ban tiɛhi ka tumdi kamani Palmyrenes.


Language[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Alphabetic inscription on stone
Alphabetic inscription in Palmyrene alphabet

Di yi pa ni third century AD nabu, Palmyrenes daa bin yɛri Palmyrene Aramaic ka zaŋ di  Palmyrene alphabet kuri bukaata.[10][11]

Latin zaŋ ku bukaata daa pɔra, amaa Greek daa nyɛla niriba pam ni yusira zaŋ kpa daa biligu ni gɔmnanti tali polo,[12] ka di daa chɛ ka di leeei balli shɛli din deei luɣili kam Byzantine saha.[13] Yɛtɔɣa nim pam beni n wuhiri Palmyrene balli ni daa zo nbɔriki shɛm saha bela din daa niŋ ka Aurelian nim daa yina n ti kampee. Ŋun mi yɛtɔɣa-bɔbili ŋun nyɛ Jean Cantineau tehiya ni Aurelian nim daa dumba Palmyrene kaya ni ta'ada luɣili kam, n ti pahi balli maa gba, amaa Palmyrene sabu din bahindi nyaanga wuhi di yibu na la 279/280, din daa niŋ ka Roman naa kpi n-naai yuuni 275, n wuhiri ni di zaɣisi laa yɛltɔya ŋɔ.[8] Karim-baŋdiba pam daa zaŋla balli ŋɔ bɔrigibu daliri n ti la tiŋ taɣabu din daa din daliri daa nyɛ bin daa yɛn labi mali Eastern Roman booda zali dini daa niŋ ka Zenobia lu.[14] [15]Kurumbuni binkura baŋda ŋun nyɛ Karol Juchniewicz zaŋ di daliri n ti tiŋ ŋɔ balli sabu, dini daa niŋ ka niribe bin daai-kpena ka be yari Aramaic, bin nyɛ Roman niiba pam.[16][17]

Hartmann daa wuhiya ni di daa nyɛla Palmyrene nima hankali be ni daa zaŋ ni be wuhi be nyaanga zanibu n ti naa maa; Hartmann wuhiya ni Palmyrene zomi bɔrigi sabu ni, ka ŋɔ wuhiri ni di yɛlibu kulibu naala zaasa.[18][19] Arab ni daa ŋmɛ n deei naai, bi daa yihi Greek ka zaŋ Arabic na,[13] dini, amaa di mini Bedouins daa kon gili tiŋ ŋɔ,  Palmyrene yɛltɔɣa daa yaligiya.[20]

Social organization[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Bust of a deceased woman, Aqmat
Palmyrene funerary portrait representing Aqmat, a Palmyrene aristocrat

Classical Palmyra nyɛla balli tiŋa, amaa dini kuli niŋ ka din yɛn vihi luɣ'shɛli kani maa,Palmyrene balli soya baŋbu nyɛla din yɛn niŋ tom pam.[21] Dundoya din kalinli nyɛ pihita nyɛla dini sabi shɛŋa niŋ kundunima ni;[22] ka dibaanu daa nyɛ dini daa mi shɛli ka di nyɛ bala (Phylai Φυλαί; pl. of Phyle Φυλή)ka mali duunoya Pam.[23][23] Di daa ti yɛn paagi Nero saha, palmyra daa nyɛla din mali bala anahi , ka di yini kam nyɛ ban daa be luɣi shɛli bini zaŋ bi balli maa yuli ti.[24]Bala maa dibaata n/ daa nyʋ Komare, Mattabol ni Ma'zin Mita.[24][25] Saha ni, bala anahi daa nyɛla ban kpe tabi ni daa bilahi baŋdi niri ni yi bali shɛli na; di daa ti yɛn paagi 2nd century, doonoya daa nyɛla din lahi ka dariza.[26] Haligba bala anahi maa daa nyɛla din kuli lahi ka dariza di daa ti yɛn paagi 3rd century, dama sabiri yini n daa kuli nyɛ din booni balli yuli yuuni 212 nyaaŋa, amaa aristocrats n daa nyɛ ban gbaari tiri tiŋ maa.[27] Paɣibi daa nyɛpa ban kuli mali kpaŋmaŋ pam Palmyra ni. Bi daa nyɛla ban yoohi sabbunima, mɛbu mɛbu, gbala ni saha shɛli gba, bi daa nyɛla ban deeri jaashɛhi. Paɣibi daa nyɛla ban mali sara ti buɣa bi yuli ni ka dunyɛ din be kundunima ni.[27]

Palmyrene sabbu bahigu 279/280 daa nyɛla din wuhiri Mathathabolians ni daa tibigi tiŋ maa nira,[14][15] din daa wuhi ni bali soya daa nyɛla din na kuli mali yaa pam Zenobia lubi nyaaŋa. Taɣibu shɛli din kuli du n pa paloni nyɛla lɛbigimaim kalinsi aristocrastic foŋ ni , ni duu bee mɛbu gahindili kalinsi tiŋ maa ni, ka wuhi ni elites daa nyɛla din kuli boogi pam Aurelian campaign la nyaaŋa.Salinima biɛhigu taɣibu ni aristocratic boobu nyɛla din nyɛ binshɛli din kahigibu to pam.Di daliri ni too nyɛ aristocracy ni daa nyɛ dansi pam bini Rome tobu maani bee bini daa kuli zo ka che tiŋ maa.Taarihi baŋda Emanuele Intagliata daa yɛliya ni taɣibu ŋo nyɛla dini too zaŋ shɛli ti Roman malizani Zenobia lubu nyaaŋa.[28][29]Palmyra ni daa lahi pa tiŋ shɛli arizichi ni be la daa leegi frontier fortress, din daa kuli che ka tiŋnimmaa daa zaŋ bi zaɣa niŋ nibi tum ti garrisson n gari bini yɛn ti tiŋ maa arizichi nɛma. Lala taɣibu daa nyɛla din yɛn che ka tiŋ maa bi lahi mali aristocratic korisi.[30][31]Palmyra daa nyɛla ban di anfaani Umayyad nam ni, dama bini daa nyɛ frontier city daa nyɛla din naagi ka Wulinpuhil-Wulinluhili daabilim soya daa lahi nyɛ bini labisi shɛlu na, ka daa kuli labisi tiŋ maa daabihi na. Palmyra yɛlmaŋli zaŋ ti Umayyad daa nyɛla din tahi zabili na bi bidiribi sani, Abbassids ni tiŋ maa daa nyɛla din galisim boohi, ka daa koŋ bi daabilim.[32][33]Timur niman ni daa saɣim li nyaaŋa, Palmyra daa nyɛla din daa kuli labi ti nyɛ tiŋ nila hali ka bi daa ti taɣi luɣ'shɛli yuuni 1932.[34]

Culture/Kali[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Mɛbu din be galisi ka be daa nyɛli tiŋ ŋɔ ni din yina Bronze Age wuhiya ni di yi nyɛ kali polo, Palmyra daa nyɛla din zooi ka di tabi western Syria.[35] [36] Classical Palmyra daa mali la kali din yi di ko,[37] n tam local Semitic taɣada,[38] ka  nyɛ Greece ni Rome ni lebigi shɛba. A yi yentooi yina laɣam venyɛlinga Roman Empire, Palmyrenes shɛba daa nyɛla bin deei Greco-Roman  yuya, di ko beei n zaŋ pahi o yuli zuɣu.[39] Di mali hali ni shɛm ka Greek nim ti yiko Palmyra's kaya zuɣu nyɛla din mali nagbani kpeeini.[40] Karim-baŋdiba pam lebigi Palmyrenes' Greek tuma nim konkoba; be shɛba nyɛla lala bachi nim maa ka di bi zilim yaɣi bachi shɛŋa din pun be dini.[41] Palmyra's senate daa nyɛla shɛhirili, amaa Palmyrene bachi nim din daa sabi Greek ni daa buɣisila ka nyɛla "boule" (a Greek institution), senate daa nyɛla laɣangu din gbaai zuliya kpamba bin daa bi piigi (a Near-Eastern assembly tradition).[42] Shɛba mi daa lihi Palmyra's kaya ŋɔ ka di nyɛla din laɣam kaya din be ni maa ni Greco-Roman kaya ni taɣada.[43]

Persia kaya daa lebigi Palmyrene linjima baŋsim, sitira ni saliya dibu shɛhi.[44] Palmyra daa ka bukunim-du kara beei bukunima ŋmabu shee, ka daa koŋ  bachinima baŋsim taɣabu zaŋ kpa Eastern tiŋ kara ka maa Edessa bee Antioch.[45]

Amaa Zenobia daa yoola bi kootu n ti baŋdiba, baŋdi so bi naa pam ka o yuli sabi doɣa n daa Cassius Longinus.[45]

Palmyra daa mali la agora zaɣi karili.[46] Amaa, ka maa Greek Agoras ( public gathering places shared with public buildings ), Palmyra's agora daa ŋmanila Eastern caravanserai n gari salo biɛhigu shee.[47][48] Palmyrenes sɔɣala bi kpinba elaborate family mausoleums,[49] di pam mali puuni dikiya din chɛ gbala ŋɔ pɛi n dɔya (loculi) ka kpinbi, ŋɔ doya waɣalim, n be dini.[50][51] Bin shɛɣu din yina kpim ŋɔ ningbuna ni nyɛla bini yan zaŋ pahi n dihi digili ŋɔ nachinsi, ka di leei zuɣu kuɣira.[51] Sarcophagi daa nyɛla din yina yuun kobiga diba-ayi bahigu ka bi daa zaŋli niŋ gbala ŋɔ shɛŋa ni.[52] Soɣabu nim pam monomɛnti nima mali la mummies n guli ningbuna ŋɔ din ŋmani bini daa niŋ shɛm Ancient Egypt.

Art and architecture[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Interior of the Tower of Elahbel, in 2010

Di mini Palmyrene mɛbu baŋsim daa nyɛla that of Greece, di daa mali di sitaayi ka di yi diko  ka chɛ  middle-Euphrates rejin.[53] Palmyrene art nyɛla bust reliefs ni zani ti, din siili di soɣabu duri.[53] Lala reliefs ŋɔ kpaŋsiri la chinchi pɔb bu, tikparisi ni tooni zaŋ ninvuɣu so bini pii,[53][54] ŋmahim-gbana din ni tooi nyɛ ka maa forerunner of Byzantine art.[53] Michael Rostovtzeff ni yɛli sham, Palmyra's art daa nyɛla Parthian art ni lebigi.[55] Amaa, piligu tooni din ŋmahimdi  Palmyrene mini Parthian arts nyɛla nangbani kpeeini dini; dini niŋ ka (Daniel Schlumberger) wuhi Parthian piligu,[56] Michael Avi-Yonah daa ŋmɛli nangbani kpeeini ni Syrian dundɔŋni ta'ara n daa nyɛ din lebigi Parthian art.[57]

Pentibu bela, ni bronze ninsali timsa bini kpe zali (which stood on brackets on the main columns of the Great Colonnade), so daa bi tiligi.[58][59] Saɣambu frieze ni  dokpɛra din daa be Temple of Bel, pam daa yihiya n ti niŋ museums din be Syria mini tiŋduya, din daa wuhi tiŋgbani ŋɔ zaa dokpera sheei.[58][59]

Ninsali nima bin kpi ka zuɣuri nyɛ bini kpe shɛŋa pam daa nyɛla dim paai wulinluhili polo taarihi binkura duu 19th century ni.[60] Palmyra daa bo shehira shɛŋa din viɛl ti wulinluhili polo din daa mahi nangbani kpeei shɛli art taarihi  20th century ni daa taɣa saha shɛli: wula ka wulinpuhili lebigibu ni Roman art daa taɣati idealized classicism ni toon tali, hieratic and simplified figures (Josef Strzygowski mini bin pahi ni dihitabili shɛli).[58][59][61] Taɣabu ŋɔ nyɛla bini nyɛ shɛli ka di nyɛ abisiɣu n ti kaya taɣabu din be Western Roman Empire,[58][59] n gari artistic influence din be wulinpuhili. Palmyrene ninsali nima zuɣuri kpebu, ka ni Roman koɣa kpebu, nyɛla din nyɛ piligu ninsalinima foto; amaa pam nyɛla din konko viɛlim yaɣi, pam mi waligiya bela n gili yuma ni paya-bee-dotali din ŋmani taba.[58][59] Ka maa di art, Palmyra's tandi mɛbu baŋsim daa din lebigibu yina Greco-Roman sitaali, ka kpaɣsi yiŋ nɛma zali (din myɛbu be viɛnyala Temple of Bel).[62][63][64][39] Din nyɛ dikili ni piɛngili ni Roman Kolomsi,[65][66] Bel's tiligibu sɔɣibu-shee plaŋ daa nyɛla din pun nyɛ Semitic.[65] Din ŋmani Second Temple, la tiligibi sɔɣabu-shee ŋɔ daa nyɛ la dundɔŋ din galisi ka mali buɣili ŋɔ maŋ jɛma-shee din miri di dundoli (plaŋ shɛli din kpaɣsiri binyara din be buɣili Ebla mini Ugarit).[65][67]

Cemeteries/Gbala[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Valley of Tombs in 2010
The senate
Baths of Diocletian
The statue of Al-lāt (equated with Athena) found in its temple (destroyed in 2015)
The Funerary Temple no.86
Diocletian's walls

kurumbuni dikiya wulinluhili, Palmyrenes daa nyɛla bin mɛ funeray monumɛnti nima kalili shɛŋa din pa nam Valley of Tombs, a necropolis. Monomɛnti nim din gari 50 daa nyɛla din nyɛ taawa-shaped ka paai jiramisa dubu bunahi. Taawa nim ŋɔ daa nyɛla bini taɣi n leei funerary temple mbe second century AD tuuli pirigili, ka maa punpɔŋɔ taawa ni nyɛ din yina AD 128. Tiŋ ŋɔ lahi mali gballi shɛŋa din be gulinyaaŋa polo, toondini-nudirigu ni wulinpuhili-nudirigu, luɣi shɛli polo gballa ni daa pun hypogea (be gbunni).

Notable Structures[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Public buildings=[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

  • The senate mɛbu nyɛla din kuli saɣim pam.[68] Di nyɛla du bila din mali peristyle ni luɣ'shɛli din mali apse di yaɣi yini ka kuɣisi kuli,pe n gili li.[22]
  • Doicletain kom subu shɛhi pam nyɛla din saɣim pam, ka bi nyɛ din daa kuli bi yaɣi di tampuɣili tariga zuɣu.[69] Ni maani kpɛbu shee nyɛla Egypt granite boobu dibaa anahi din zaɣ'yini kam nyɛ 1.3 metere( 4ft 3 in) di yɛliŋ, 12.5 meters( 41ft) di dubu ka nyɛ din timsim paagi 20 tonnes.[68] Di puuni, kom subu boɣili nyɛla din shɛhira na kuli doya ka Corithian columns gilli, n pahi du shɛli dini daa nyɛ niɛma yɛbu duu ka mali kom yibu shee di sunsuni.[68] Sossianus Hierocles, naa ŋun daa be Emperor Diocletian gbinni, daa nyɛla ŋun yɛli ni ŋuni n daa me lala shinshɛri ŋo, amaa duri maa daa nyɛla dini daa me shɛli 2nd century bahigu ka Sossianus Hierocles nyɛ ŋun daa kuli lahi labi mali li.[70][71][72][73]
    • The Agora of Palmyra nyɛla din pahi luɣi shɛli din lahi mali tarrif yaari ni tricilinium, amaa 1st century ni AD.[63][64] Agora maa nyɛla din nyɛ zaɣ'jaɣinli pam 71- by- 84 metre ( 233 by 276 ft) mɛbu la mali duunoya piniyini.[68] Di puuni , columnar bases din kalinli nyɛ 200 ka daa nyɛ bini daa zaŋdi binŋmahima bee jeduɣiri din zan nti tiŋ maa asanzalinima niŋda.[68] Sabiri shɛŋa dini sabi di gbinni daa nyɛla din che ka niribi baŋdi dini pu jɛdɣuri maa shem; di wulinpuhili zuɣu daa nyɛla dini che shɛli ti senatanima, di nuzaa zuɣu daa nyɛla dini che shɛli ti Palmyrene fukumsinima, ni wulinluhili zuɣu daa nyɛla soojanima dini ka nudirigu zuɣu nyɛ caravan nanima dini.[68]
    • Tariff Court nyɛla din pobi ka bara agora nudirigu ka nyɛ din minli mali di nuzaa gooni yini.[74][75] Di kpɛm shee daa nyɛla din kuli bari pam ka be gooni maa nudirgu zuɣu.[74][75] Amaa duunoli ŋo daa nyɛla dini daa mɛ goon taɣirigu n ŋari shɛli, ka bi daa pa doli duunoya ata din be agora maani n kpɛri yaariaani.[74][75] Yaari maa daa nyɛla din nyɛ di yuli dini daa mali 5- metre ( 16ft) kuɣili din daa mali Palmyrene farigu zalisi ka di sabi pa di zuɣu.[76][77]
    • Triclinium of the Agora nyɛla din be Agora maa nuzaawulinluhili yaɣili ka ni too deegi niribi ban kalinli nyɛ pihinayi.[78][79] Di nyɛla din pora 12-by-15-metre ( 39 by 49 ft) ka bi Ku sabi Greek key motifs n gili li ka di dubu ku paagi gooni maa pirigili.[80][81] Di nyɛla tiŋ maa fukunsima ni daa zaŋdi shɛli tumdi tuma;[78] French darekta of antuquities Syria ni, Henri Seyrig, daa yɛliya ni di daa nyɛla jɛma shee din nyɛ zaɣ'bila poi ka di daa yi zaŋli leegi tricilinum duu.[79]

Temples[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

  • Temple of Bel daa nyɛla din pili tuma yuuni AD 32;[82] di daa malila precinct ka bi zaŋ porticos linili; di daa nyɛla din tuhi nuzaa ni nudirigu yaɣili.[83] Nyaagi maa gooni daa nyɛla 205-metre ( 673ft) waɣilim ka mali propylaea,[84] ka di cella nyɛ din daa za akpaaka din be di sunsuni zuɣu.[85]
  • Temple of Baalshamin daa nyɛla din pili 2nd century BC bahigu di tuuli niŋbu ni,[86] du altar daa nyɛla dini me shɛli yuuni AD 115,[67] ka daa nyɛ dini daaa lahi labi me shɛli yuuni AD 131 ni.[87] Di daa nyɛla din mali di duu ni colonnaded yaari nima dibaayi nuzaa ni nudirigu du zuɣu maa ni.[88] Di lahi mali vestibule din mali columnima dibaa ayobu ka di dikpina nyɛ dini daa zaŋ pilastanima niŋli ka di viɛla.[89]
  • Temple of Nabu nyɛla din kuli saɣim pam.[90] Jama duu maa daa nyɛla din be wulinpuhili yaɣili; di nyaaŋa propylea daa nyɛla din kuli chaŋ hali ti kpr 20-by-9-metre (66 by ƒt) akpaaku din yiri portico shɛli columnima maa gbinni ni za di zuɣu.[88] Peristlye cella maa daa nyɛla din yoogi chaŋ ti yi guli nyaaŋa altar.[88]
  • The Temple of Al-Lat nyɛla din kuli saɣim pam ka di kuli kpalim la akpaaku, columnima bɛla.[91] Yaari maa puuni lion relief zaɣ'karili ( Lion of Al-lat) daa nyɛl dini wurim shɛli, di daa nyɛla din ŋurigu yina temple maa yaari goma ni.[92]
  • Temple of Baal-hamon din daa kuli saɣim zaa ŋo daa nyɛla din nbe Jabal al -Mumthar kunkuni zuɣu din daa lihiri Efqa kobiligi la zuɣu.[93] Dini daa mɛli yuuni AD 89, di daa nyɛla din mali cella ni vestibule din mali columnima dibaa ayi.[93] Temple maa daa nyɛla din mali, piyoli din taɣirili :[94] mosaic din daa kuli wuhiri ja shee ŋo daa nyɛla dini wurim shɛli ka di daa wuhi ni cellanima ni vestibulenima maa daa nyɛla dini zaŋ merlons pahi viɛlim.[94]

Other buildings[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

  • Great Colonnade daa nyɛla Palmyra pali kpani din waɣilim daa nyɛ 1.1 klimometres ( 0.68 mi); lala column nim ŋo pam nyɛla din daa kuli biɛni hali ni 2nd century AD ha ka du zaɣ'yini kam nyɛ 9.50 metres ( 31.2ft) dubu.[95]
  • Funerary Temple no. 86 (dini daa lahi mi shɛli House Tomb) nyɛla din be Great Collonade wulinluhili zuɣu.[96][97] Di daa nyɛla dini mɛ shɛli 3rd century AD ni ka mali columnima dibaa ayobu ni vine pattern pobirisi.[98][99] Di puuni , steps daa nyɛla din sheeri kuni vault crypt.[99] Buɣili maa daa naan too nyɛ din mini nayili maa mali shaɣani ni taba dama di ko n nyɛ siliga tiŋ maa goma puuni.[98]
  • Tetrapylon daa nyɛla dini yiɣisi shɛli Diocletian malibi la saha, 3rd century bahigu.[34] Di nyɛla din nyɛ zaɣ'moɣiliŋ ka di cona kam daa mali columnima dibaa anahi.[100] Column kam daa nyɛla din soŋdi 150 ton conice ka mali luɣ'shɛli dini daa zaŋdi jɛduɣiri zaana.[100] Columnima pinaayobu maa puuni, zaɣ'yini n daa kuli nyɛ zaɣ'maŋli ka din kpalim maa nyɛ Syrian Directorate General of Antiquities ni daa zaŋ concrete labi mali shɛlu yuuni 1963 ni.[99] Columnima maa daa nyɛla dini zaŋ shɛli yi Egypt tingbani ni na ka di nyɛ pink granite ka bi daa zaŋ kpɛli.[100]
  • Walls of Palmyra nyɛla din daa pili 1st century ni ka di nyɛ gooni shɛli din yɛn taɣiri tiŋ maa nima ka daa mali polo shɛŋa ka zoya din kuli koɣili maa daa nyɛ din gba taɣirili; di daa malila fondi, gaadiri nima ni kom ni do luɣ'shɛli. Yuuni 273 nyaaŋa, Aurelian daa nyɛla ŋum sa rampart shɛli dini daa mi " Wall of Diocletian; di daa nyɛla din pobi palo kamani 80 hectares, din daa kuli nyɛ din pori gari tuulimaa.[101][102]

Destruction by IS[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Bel's temple entrance arch remains after the destruction of the cella

Niribi ban daa nya daa yɛliya,ni silimin goli 23 March yuuni 2015, Islamic State bibiɛhi daa nyɛla ban saɣ Lion of Al-lat ni jɛduɣiri din pahi, ŋo lo ŋo daa nyɛla dim daa niŋ dini naa niŋ ka bibiɛhi ŋo laɣisi tiŋ maa niriba ka daa yɛliba ni bi pala ban yɛn saɣim tiŋ maa binyɛra nyaaŋa.[103] IS daa nyɛla ban saɣim Temple of Baalshamin silimin goli 23 August yuuni 2015.[104] Silimin goli 30 August yuuni 2015, IS daa nyɛla ban saɣim Temple of Bel cella.[105] Sillmin goli 31 August yuuni 2015, United Ntions daa nyɛla ban yina ti yɛli ni yɛlimaŋli Temole ŋo nyɛla dini daa shiri destroyed;[106] di goma maa nyɛla din na biɛni.[105][107]

Di daa pa baŋ ya silimin goli 4 September yuuni 2015, ni IS daa nyɛla ban saɣim tiŋ maa ni kuli kpaŋ bi maŋa gbibi sili shɛŋa puuni dibaata ka Tower of Elahbel nyɛ din daa pahi di ni.[108] Silimin goli 5 October yuuni 2015, lahibali daa uina wuhi ni IS daa nyɛla ban kuli saɣindi mɛbu mɛbu ka di daa ka gbinni adiini ni.[109] Silimin goli 20 January yuuni 2017, lahibali daa yina wuhi ni lala bibiɛhi ŋo daa nyɛla ban saɣim tetrapylon ni theathre maa yaɣi shɛli.[110] Dini daa niŋ ka Syria soojanima daadeegi Palmyra silimin goli March yuuni 2017 ni maa, Maamoun Abdulkarim, ŋun daa nyɛ antiquities ni museums zuɣulalna Syrian Ministry of Culture ni daa yɛliya ni barina shɛli dini niŋ saha kurili niɛma tiɛri maa ni too baligi gari tuuli maa, dama anfioni nima daa wuhiya ni baruna shɛli daa bilahi niŋ pahi dini daa kuli mi shɛlu maa zuɣu.[111] Antiquities fukumsi nira, Wael Hafyan daa yɛliya ni Tetrapylon daa nyɛla din kuli saɣim pam ka Roman theatrw facade saɣimbu maa daa dii bi galisi.[112]

Restoration[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Dini daa niŋ ka saɣingu ŋo saɣim, Creative Commons daa kpiɣi soya silimin goli 21 October yuuni 2015, n pili New Palmyra project, din daa kuli nyɛ pohim zuɣu ka bi bomdi wuhori tiŋ maa niɛma tiɛri maa; lala bombu nima ŋo daa nyɛla dini nya shɛŋa anfoonina shɛŋa bini daa laɣisi , ka zaŋli bahi palo ni, ka di nyɛla Syria pohim zuɣu nira, Bassel Khartabil n daa niŋli ŋo yuuni 2005 ni 2012 sunsuni.[113][114] Malibu daa nyɛla dini niŋ shɛli, Palmyrene funerary bust dibaayi din nyɛ IS nima ni daa saɣim shɛli daa nyɛla dini zaŋ shɛli tahi Rome ka bi daa labi mali li ka labisili chaŋ Syria.[115][116] Lion of Al-lat malibi daa nyɛla dini zaŋ chira ayi n niŋ shɛli ka daa nyɛ dini zaŋ shɛli wuhi silimin goli 1 October yuuni 2017 ni; di nyɛla din yɛn kpalin National Museum of Damascus ni.[117]

Zaŋ kpa malibu maa polo, ŋun daa nya Ebla, Paolo Mattiae daa yɛliya: " Ni Palmyra nyɛla din kuli mali saɣimbu pam ka kobigi puuni vaabu pishi zaŋ chaŋ pihita nya din kuli saɣim pam. Ŋolo ŋo daa nyɛla tiŋ gahunda kamani Temple of bel, ka Arc of Triumph lee nyɛ dini ni too labi mɛ shɛli." O daa lahipahiya " Ni di yi zaŋ saha ŋo mɛbu soya bee daa maa ha mɛbu soya, di zaa nyɛla din ni too soŋdi ka di labi mali lala yaɣa ŋo maa kobigi puuni vaabu pihiwoi ni a nii".[118]


Taari[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Former spring, with steps
Efqa Spring, which dried up in 1994 [119]

Yaɣali ŋɔ mali la paleolithic yiya. Efqa Spring yaɣali, Neolithic yiya beni,[120] ni stone tools din yina yuuni 7500 BC.[121] Archaeological sounding din be Temple of Bel gbunni daa yooi buloku duri bini daa mɛ yuuni 2500 BC, ka din doli di nyaanga mi daa mɛ Middle Bronze Age mini Iron Age saha.[122][123]

Early Period[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Tiŋ maa daa nyɛla din kpe taarihi ni Bronzs Age la saha kamani yuuni 2000 BC, dini faa niŋ ka Puzur- Ishtar ŋun daa nyɛ Tadmorean ( palmyreane) daa saɣiti contraaji Assyrian daabiligu colony Kultepe ni.[121]

Di daa nyɛla dini lahi bolj shɛli Mari tablets ni ka dinyɛ luɣi shɛli dabiligu ni niŋda ni luɣi shɛli nomadic bala kamani Suteans ni daa zaana,[124] ka daa lahi nyɛ Yahdun-Lim ŋun yi Mari na ni daa ŋme n dee shɛli.[125][126] Naa Shamshi-Adad I ŋun daa yi Assyria na daa nyɛla ŋun daa gari tiŋ maa ni dini daa niŋ ka o daa tichɛni Mediterranean, 18th century piligu;[127] lala saha ŋo, Palmyra n daa nyɛ tiŋ din kuli be Qatna wulinpuhili zuɣu,[128][129] ka Suteans daa nyɛ ban liriba ka gbarigi tiŋ maa daabilim, dam niribi ban daa kuli be dasoya zuɣu ŋo daa nyɛla ban dii lahi kani.[130][131] Palmyra daa nyɛla dini boli shɛli 13th- century BC tablet dini daa nyɛ shɛli Emar, ka daa nyɛ din mali Tadmorean shahira diribi ayi yuya.[124] 11th century piligu, Assyria Naa Tiglath- Pileser I daa nyɛla ŋun tuhi nyaŋ Arameans ban daa be Tadmar;[124] naa ŋo daa yɛliya ni Palmyra daa nyɛla din pahi Amurru zuɣu.[132]

Tiŋ maa da nyɛla din leegi wulinluhili boda zaŋti Aram-Damascus din daa nyɛ Neo-Assyrian Empire ni daa ŋme n di shɛli yuuni 732 BC.[133]

Hebrew Bible (Second book of Chronicles 8:4) nyɛla din mali tiŋ yuli din booni "Tadmor" ka du nyɛ tiŋ shɛli tankpaɣu ni kuli be ka King Solomon of Israel na nyɛ ŋun daa mɛli bee n kpaŋsi tiŋ maa ;[134] Flavius Josephus daa boli di Greek yuli " Palmyra", ka daa zaŋ di nyɛbi n ti Solomon Kundu VIii, o Antiquities of the Jews la puni.[87] Di nyaaŋa, laribu kali nyɛla din zaŋ tiŋ maa nyʋbu n ti Sulemana Jinn.[135] Din be Solomon ni Palmyra sunsuni nyɛla bi zaŋla " Tadmor" ni tiŋ Shɛli Solomon ni daa mɛ Judea tingbani ni ka di yuli booni " Tamar" Books of Kings ( 1 Kings 9:18).[86] Bible ni buɣisi " Tadmor" ni di mɛbu mɛbu bi lu n zahim ban vihiri tingbani ni nya binshɛli Palmyra, din daa nyɛ tiŋ bili shɛli niribi ni ʒiya Solomon Saha, 10th century BC ni.[86] Elephantine Jews, tiŋduli laɣingu shɛli dini daa kpa yuuni 650-550BC Egypt tungbani ni nyɛla ban daa naan too yina Palmyra.[136] Papyrus Amrhest 63 nyɛla ŋun wuhi ka dama ni Elephantine Jewsnima yaanima daa nyɛla ban nyɛ Samarians. Taarihi baŋda Karel van der Toorn daa nyɛla ŋun tiɛhi ka dama lala yaanima ŋo daa nyɛla ban chaŋ Judea ni bi ti tiligi dini daa niŋ ka Sargon II ŋun yi Syria na daa nyɛ ŋun saɣim bi tiŋ maa yuuni 721 BC ni, ka daa lahi nyɛ ban yi Judea n chaŋ Palmyra dini daa niŋ ka Sennacherib daa saɣum yiŋ maa yuuni 701 BC ni.Lala ŋmahinli ŋo nyɛla din ni tooi buɣisi Elephantine Jewnima ŋo ni zaŋdi Araimaic ni Papyruz Amherest 63 n tumdi tuma, hali dini kuli bi yɛli, Palmyra nyɛla din wuhiri tiri "kpikpali tihi" din be kobiligi gbini daa soli zuɣu, deserti ni, ka lala zuɣu ŋo che ka Palmyra nyɛ dini kuli yɛn nyʋ shɛli.[137]

Hellenistic and Roman Periods[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Stone inscribed with Greek letters
The inscription mentioning king Epiphanes

Hellenistic period daa be Suleucids sulinsi ni ( 312 ni 64 BC sunsuni),Palmyra daa nyɛla din lɛbigi pam nti sali nim ʒiya ka Seleucid naa dawoma ni.[86][138] Shehira din wuhiri palmyra lɛbigibu Hellenistic saha maa nyɛla din bi zoogi; di jɛnda nyɛla Laghman II sabbu shɛli dini daa nyɛ Laghman, pumpoŋo Afghanistan, ka Indian naa Ashoka c. Daa nyɛ ŋun yooli yuuni 250 BC.Lala sabbu ŋo nyɛla niribi pam ni yɛli ni bi sula di sulinsu, to amaa Andre Dupont-Sommer, daa yɛliya ni sabbu ŋo nyɛla din daa sabi wuhiri "Tdmr" ( Palmyra) soli.[139][140][141][141][141][142][143][144][143][140] Yuuni 217 BC ni Palmyrene soojanima daa nyɛla ban pahi King Antiochus III soojanima zuɣu ka bi daa chaŋ ti tuhi Battle of Raphia din daa ti che ka Seleuccid nyɛ Ptolemaic Egypt ni nyŋa so.[145] Hellenistic saha ŋo sunsuni, Palmyra, din daa na be al-Qubur wadi nudirigu zuɣu, daa nyɛla din yɛligi yaɣi di nuzaa tarisi.[146] Di daa ti yɛn paagi 2nd century bahigu, siliginima din daa be Palmyrene Valley of Tombs ni tiŋ maa jɛma shehi ( din daa nyɛ Baalshamin, Al-lãt ni Hellenistic temple) daa nyɛla dini kuli pili shɛli mɛbu.[147][145][86] Sabiri ŋmaa din be Greek ni ka daa yina Temple of Bel's ni, daa nyɛla din boli naa yuli din booni Epiphanes, yu shɛli dini mali tiri Seleucid nanima.[148][149]

Yuuni 64 BC, Roman Republic daa nyɛla din ŋme n deegi seleucid kingdom, ka Roman Pompey daa nyɛ ŋun kpa provnice of Syria.[145] Palmyra daa nyɛla din za di gama zuɣu,[145] ka daa nyɛ ban mini Rome ni Parthia niŋ daa daabilim ka daa leepa lala tiŋ ŋo zaɣ'yini ni su shɛli.[150] Sabbu shɛli din nyʋ tuuli Palmyrene ni daa nyɛla din daa niŋ saha kamani 44BC;[151] Palmyra daa na kuli nyɛla sheikhdom zaɣ'bila ka daa tiri niribi ban daa gori ka doli desert ni kom.[152] Amaa, Appian daa yɛliya ni Palmyra daa nyɛla tiŋ shɛli arizichi ni daa kuli be shɛli ni din daa naan che ka Mark Antony tim soojanima ka bi ti ŋme n di yuuni 41 BC.[150] Palmyrenes maa daa nyɛla ban yiɣisi chaŋ Parthian tingbana nin gari Euphrates wulinpuhili tarisi maa,[150] bini daa kuli mali shili ni bi gbibi shɛli.[151]

Autonomous Palmyrene region[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Temple ruins
Cella of the Temple of Bel (destroyed in 2015)
Temple of Baal-Shamin (destroyed in 2015)
Well-preserved Roman amphitheater
Palmyra's theater (damaged in 2017)
Ruins, with arches and columns
The monumental arch in the eastern section of Palmyra's colonnade (destroyed in 2015)

Palmyra daa nyɛla din daa pa pahi Roman Empire zuɣu dini daa niŋ ka bi ŋme ndeeli ka daa nyɛ ban yori tiri Tiberius kamani yuuni 14AD.[89][145][153] Romannima daa nyɛla ban zaŋ Palmyra n pahi Syria yaɣili ni,[154] ka daa wuhi di tarisi.[155] Pliny the Elder daa nyɛla ŋun yɛli din Palmyrene ni Emesene yaɣa zaa daa nyɛla din yɛligira ;[156][156] bini boogi binshɛli Palmyrene nudiriguwulinluhili tariga daa nyɛla dini nyɛ shɛli yuuni 1936 ni ka di nyɛla Daniel Schlumberger n daa nyɛ ŋun nyɛli Qasr al-Hayr al-Gharbi, ka daa kuli nyɛ din saha daa gbaagi Hadrian nam ni bee ban daa pa o zuɣu maa , ka di daa nyɛ din booogi tarisi tiŋsi ayi maa sunsuni.[157][158][159] Lala tarigi ŋo nyɛla din zori nuzaazuɣu kuni Khirbet al-Bilaas, Jabal al- Bilas ni, luɣi shɛli boobu shɛli Roman toondana Silanus ni daa boogi lahi bɛni, daa nyɛla dini nya shɛli, 75km(47mi) Palmyra nuzaa wulinluhilizuɣu, ka nyɛ din ŋmahiri tarisi tiri Epiphania.[160][155] Amaa, Palmyra wulinpuhila tarisu nyɛla din kuli chaŋ hali ni Euphrates vinvuma ni.[159] Lala yaɣiliŋo nyɛla din daa mali tinkpansi din be di gbinni,[161] ka foŋ kara kamani al-Qaryatayn gba kuli biɛni.[162] Roman saha ŋo daa nyɛla din tahi lɛbigimsim pam na nti tiŋ maa, ka tiŋ maa daa di alifaani dini daa kuli niŋ ka di be empire maa gbinni.[163]

Tuuli Palmyrene sabbu din daa wuhi ni Roman nima daa nyɛla ban daa be tiŋ maa ni nyɛla dini daa nyɛ shɛli yuuni 18AD, dini daa niŋ ka Roman sioja kpema Germanicus daa bori ni o mini Parthia niŋ zori; o daa nyɛla ŋun tahi Palmyrene Alexandros chaŋ Mesene, Parthian vassal kingdom.[164][165] Di yuuni nyaaŋa, Roman legion Legio X Frentesis daa nyɛla ŋun kpe tiŋ maa ni.[166][166]

Roman fukumsi daa nyɛla din kuli bi galisi 1st century AD saha, di bahi bahindi farigu deeribi daa nyɛla ban be tiŋ maa ni,[167] ka palli din daa yi Palmyra kuni Sura daa nyɛla bini me shɛli yuuni 75 AD.[89][168] Romanima daa nyɛla ban zaŋdi Palmyrene soojanima tum di tuma.[169] Palmyra daa nyɛla din nyɛ mɛbu mɛbu pam 1sg century ni, tiŋ maa tuuli gooni din daa yɛn taɣi tiŋ maa ka che bi dimbu daa nyɛla dini mɛ shɛli, nti pahi Temple of Bel ( dini da naagi shɛli yuuni 32AD). 1st century maa saha, Palmyra daa nyɛla din lɛbigi leegi daabilim ni be shɛli pam,[89][152] ka Palmyrene daabihi daa nyɛ ban kuli niŋdi bi daabilim bi luɣYuuniu shɛŋa din daa koɣi daabilim tinsi maa.[165]

Palmyrene daa nyɛla din daa kuli du zuɣusaa pam 2nd century la ni,[170] ka di nyɛ yɛla ayi zuɣu; tuuli maa daa nyɛla dini daa niŋ ka Palmyrenes me da soya maa,[171] ka di nyɛ ninvuɣ'kpɛma ni daa kuli lihiri shɛli zuɣu di yaɣa maa ni, n pahi garrison shɛli din daa be Dura-Europos bini daa kpa shɛli yuuni 117 AD.[172] Din pahi ayi daa nyɛla Roman nima ni daa ŋme n gbaagu Nabatean tiŋzuɣu din yuli nyɛ Petra yuuni 106,[89] din daa vuugi daabilim soya Arabian Peninsula, Nabateans ni n labi Palmyra.[173][145] 129 Palmyra daa nyɛpa Hadrian ni daa kpiɣi napoŋ chaŋ shɛli ka daa bolili " Hadraine Palmyra" ka daa che ka di leegi free city.[174][175] Hadrian daa nyɛla ŋun kpaŋsi Hellenism tiŋ maa zaa,[176] ni ka Palmyra foŋ lɛbgibu daa nyɛ dini lihi Greece ka niŋ shɛli.[176] Ŋolo ŋo daa tahi bin pala na tiŋ maa ni kamani diɛma diɛmbu bee di lihibu shee ( theatre) collonade ni Nabu jɛma shee.[176] Roman garrisonnima daa nyɛla ban daa pili bi tuma Palmyra yuuni 167, dini daa niŋ ka Calvary Ala I Thracum Herculiana daa nyɛ dini kpɣi shɛli chaŋ tiŋ maa ni.[177][178] 2nd century daa ti yɛn naagi, foŋ lɛbigimsim daa nyɛla din boogi dini daa niŋ ka mɛbu mɛbu daa paagi di tariga.[179] Yuuni 190s ni Palmyra daa nyɛla dini zaŋ shɛli pahi Phoenice yaɣili ni, din daa nyɛ Severan dynasty ni daa yoli n shɛli.

Zaŋ chani 2nd century maa bahigu, Palmyra daa nyɛla din pili taɣibu n yiri Greek city-state n chani monarchy dama di ni daa niŋ ka tiŋ maa kuli nyɛ ban maani shili guli tobu maa, ni di daabilim ni daa kuli boogu;[180] Severan ʒinibu imperial throne maa zuɣu Rome, daa nyɛla din soŋsi Palmyra taɣibu ŋo.[179]

  • Severan nima ni daa liidi Roman Parthian War, din daa gbaahi yuuni 194 hali ni 217, daa nyɛla din gbarigi tiŋ maa daabilim.[181] Bandits daa nyɛla ban pili daa nɛma liribu di daa ti yɛn paagi 199, ka ŋo lo ŋo daa che ka Palmyra kpaŋsi di soojanima biɛhigu.[181]
  • dynasty palli maa daa nyɛla di lu n ti tiŋ maa,[181] ka daa zaŋ Cohors I Flavia Chalcidenorum zali ni yuuni 206.[182] Caracalla daa nyɛla ban daa deegi Palmyra sulinsi yuuni 213 ni 216 sunsuni, ka daa kuli zaŋ Roman tuma nima n zali Greek dina zani.[180] Severus Alexander, ŋun daa nyɛ naa yuuni 222 hali ni 235 daa nyɛla ŋun kpiɣi napoŋ chaŋ Palmyra yuuni 229.

Palmyrene kingdom[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Sasanian Empire zuɣusaa yaɣsibu n daa nyɛ din saɣim Palmyrene daadibu.[183] Sasanians daa nyɛla bin kari Palmyrene sulinsi tiŋgbana din be tiŋgbana ni,[183] ka daa piligu Roman Empire tobu ŋmɛbu.[184] Sabu din wuhira di yibu na 252 Odaenathus yina ka gbubi la exarchos (lord) yuli din nyɛ Palmyra.[185] Roman Empire chɔŋsi ni saha shɛli kam Persian varisiɣu n daa nyɛ darili din chɛ ka Palmyrene laɣangu daa di pii naa n ti tiŋ titali ŋɔ dii ya chɛ ka o leei toondana n koaŋsi linjima nima.[186] Odaenathus daa vun miri Shapur I zaŋ ti Persia n ti suhi o ni o saɣiti Palmyrene kɔrisi ni Persia, amaa ka o daa zaɣasi.[187] Yuuni 260 Emperor Valerian zabi Shapur la Battle of Edessa, amaa ka daa kɔŋ nasara ka bi tɔm gbaago.[187] Valerian's officer nim puni yino, Macrianus Major, o bihi Quietus mini Macrianus, ni perfect Balista daa niŋ Valerian's bia Gallienus taawaaye, ka deei yaa Syria.[188]


Persian wars[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

clay piece bearing a depiction of a king wearing a diadem and earring
A clay tessera bearing a possible depiction of Odaenathus wearing a diadem

Odaenathus daa kpala lijima bin nyɛ Palmyrenes mini Syrian pukpariba n bi yu Shapur. Di yi kana Augustan History, Odaenathus daa leei o maŋa naa pɔi ni tobu maa.[189] Palmyrene pkɛma daa di nasara din ka daɣiri ka miri Euphrates banchinima 260 naabu ka daa chɛ ka Persians zo n labi.[190][64] Yuuni 261 Odaenathus daa maachi n bi yu usurpers bin daa kpalim n be Syria, tuhidi-nyaŋda ka kuri Quietus mini Balista.[191][192] Din yɛn nyɛ pini, o daa deeila nam din nyɛ Imperator Totius Orientis ("Governor of the East") n yina Gallienus,[193] and gbubi Syria, Mesopotamia, Arabia ni Anatolia's wulinpuhii regions ka di nyɛ ŋun yɛn zan n tiba.[194][195] Palmyra maŋmaŋa daa nyɛla din pa ku pahi tiŋgnani ŋɔ ni amaa Palmyrene sabu daa piligu buɣisibu la "metrocolonia", n wuhiri ni tiŋ ŋɔ zaasheei gari Roman colonias.[196] Di yi nyɛ tuma, Palmyra daa ŋmaligiya yi tiŋ baɣaliga ni n leei de facto allied kingdom.[197]

Yuuni 262 ni Odaenathus daa piligi kampee pali n bi yu Shapur,[198] n labi deeiri  Roman Mesopotamia (din kpa pam, tiŋsi din be Nisibis mini Carrhae), ka kariti Jewish tiŋa din be Nehardea,[199][199][200] ka liriti Persian tiŋ zuɣu Ctesiphon.[201][202] O nasara ŋɔ nyaanga, Palmyrene nam, daa di yuli din nyɛ King of Kings.[187][203][204] Nyannga ha, Odaenathus daa leei o bia Hairan I  ka o nyɛ naa ŋun pahi nanima bin miri Antioch yuuni 263.[205] Amaa, o daa bi deei Persian tiŋ zuɣu, Odaenathus kari Persians Roman tiŋgbana zaa bini daa ŋmɛ n fa Shapur's wars in 252.[206] O kampee din daa pahi ayi ka niŋ yuuni 266, Palmyrene naa daa Ctesiphon yaɣa; amaa, sheei ka o daa yi dini n ŋmaligi n kpa gulinyaaŋa polo, ka Hairan I pahi dolo, ni bi saɣasi Gothic attacks din be Asia Minor.[207] Naa ŋɔ mini bia daa nyɛla bini ku shɛba bi labu na yuuni 267; di yi kana Augustan History mini Joannes Zonaras, Odaenathus daa nyɛla ŋun ma bia ni ku (Zonaras yɛliya ni ŋahinga) bini boli so taarihi ni ni Maeonius.[208] Augustan History lahi yɛliya ni Maeonius daa ŋun leei naa saha bela pɔi ka linjima nim daa ku o.[208][209][210] Amaa, sabu beei shɛhirili shali kani n wuhiri Maeonius nam saha.[211]

Zenobia as Augusta, on the obverse of an Antoninianus.

Odaenathus bia n daa deegi o; Vaballathus yuun pia bia.[212] Zenobia, naa pali ŋɔ ma, daa nyɛla de facto naa ka Vaballathus daa ku kpalim be o shililshii ni ka o laɣa o yaa.[206] Gallienus daa zaŋ o Heraclian tim ni o ti lihi linjimanima ka bi tuhi Persians, amaa o daa nyɛla Zenobia filim ka o labi wulinlinluhili polo.[206] Napaɣa ŋɔ maagi o maŋa ni o bi bɔ Rome vuri, ka ka wuhiri ni o maŋa ni o bia n su o yidana ni daa diri nam shɛli ka wuhiri booda tiliginsim ni Persia ka mahiri Tanukhids bin be Hauran suhu.[212] N yɛn guli booda nim ni Persia, Zenobia kpaŋsi yiya din be Euphrates n ti pahi citadels of Halabiye ni Zalabiye.[213] Shɛhili din kpɛma beni wuhiri o mini  Sasanians nyɔri ni daa ŋmɛ taba; ka maa yuuni 269 Vaballathus daa deei yuli ni Persicus Maximus ("The great victor in Persia") ka yuli ni tooi ŋɔ zaŋ gɔhi tobu shɛli din bi sabi dɔya ka daa tuhi Persian linjima n daa bɔri ni di labi deei Northern Mesopotamia sulinsi.[214][215]

Palmyrene Empire[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Map of the Palmyrene empire
The Palmyrene empire in AD 271

Zenobia daa pili la o linjima tali la sipirinji 270,  Claudius Gothicus nam saha.[216] O daa mali niya din bi paa ni o liri Tanukhids, o daa ŋmɛ fa la Roman Arabia.[216] Ŋɔ maa daa doli la silimin goli October ni dini daa niŋ ka invasion of Egypt,[217][218] ka daa naai ni Palmyrene nasara nyɛbu ni Zenobia's yina polo ni leei naa n ti Egypt.[219] Palmyra daa kpɛ Anatolia ni kpiɛŋ yuuni din daa ku dolina, ka daa paai Ankara ni di yɛligibu kpaakpaa-nyomini.[220] Laa tuhi deei ŋɔ maa daa nyɛla din niŋ Rome kpanjoŋuni.[221] Zenobia daa yihi konsi na Aurelian yuli ni ŋun daa toondi Claudius' nam, n ti pahi Vaballathus ka o mi nyɛ naa;[217][221] dini daa niŋ ka Aurelian kpɛ n pali la taawaaye niŋdiba saha kam din be Europe, o daa saɣati Palmyrene konsi ŋmabu ni kpaɣani kpebu ŋɔ.[222][223] 271 naabu, Vaballathus mini o ma daa deei nama din nyɛ Augustus (Naa) ni Augusta.[224][225][226][221]

Yuuni din daa doli na, Aurelian daa baai-gari Bosphorus ka daa niŋ yom doli Anatolia kpe yi.[227] Luɣi shɛli polo, di wuhiya ni Roman soojɛ kpɛma ŋun yuli booni Marcus Aurelius Probus daa ŋun labi deei Egypt Palmyra nim sani.[89][228] Aurelian daa kpɛ Issus ka daa zaŋ kpa n chaŋ Antioch, dini ka o daa tuhi nyɛŋa Zenobia Battle of Immae ni.[229] Zenobia daa nyɛla bini lahi tuhi nyɛŋ Battle of Emesa ni, ka daa soɣi be Homs pɔi ka daa niŋ yom labi o tiŋ ni.[230] Dini daa niŋ ka Romans liri Palmyra, Zenobia daa saɣasiya ni o ku deei bi yɛtɔɣa din wuhiri ni o zaŋ o maŋ zoŋ pɔi ni be naa.[220] O daa zo n borige n kpa wulinipuhili polo n ti yɛli Persians ni be soŋ mi o, amaa ka Romans kpɛhi o nuuni; ka tiŋ ŋɔ daa doni hali ni zuŋɔ.[231][232]

Later Roman and Byzantine periods[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Ruins, with columns and arches
Diocletian's camp

Aurelian daa yila tiŋgbani ŋɔ ni n ti laɣim peetɔriba ninvuɣi kɔbisi yɔbu 600 , Sandarion n daa nyɛ di kpɛma, ni bɛ laɣim guli tiŋa ma ka suhudoo beni.[233] Yuuni 273 Palmyra daa niŋ la taawaaye,Septimius Apsaios sulinsi saha,[234] ka daa zaŋ Antiochus (a relative of Zenobia) leei "Augustus."[235] Aurelian daa zabila Palmyra, ka fa bɛ binmɛra din mali nachiinsi Temple of Sol.Palmyrene yiya daa wurimmi, ka niriba pam ku ,ka nail "Temple of Bel"

Palmyra daa lɛbi la tiŋkpan bila di saha ka di yuli nyahi taarihi ni.Aurelian daa labi mali Temple of Bel, ka daa zali Legio I Illyricorum tiŋ ŋɔ ni .Pɔi 303,ka Camp of Diocletian, bɛ daa mɛ castrum tiŋa ŋɔ wulinluhili polo. 4-hectare (9.9-acre) n daa nyɛ Legio I Illyricorum piligu,din daa gu tiŋa ŋɔ daa daabilgu soya.Aurelian ni daa saɣim Palymra nyaaŋa di daa leei la Asori tiŋgbani.Yuuni 527 bahigu, Justinian I daa yɛli la Asori duri nima ni bɛ gu ka taɣi Lakhmid king Al-Mundhir III ibn al-Nu'manliribu.

Arab Caliphates[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Rashidun Caliphate daa tuhili deei Palmyra di 634 Muslim general Khalid ibn al-Walid gbaabu nyaaŋa, ŋun daa zaŋ tiŋa ŋɔ chaŋ Damascus; o soojɛnima biɛɣu pia ni anii handi zaŋ yi Syrian Desert din yi Mesopotamia (18-day march by his army through the Syrian Desert from Mesopotamia).[236] Din saha Palmyra tariga daa nyɛla "Diocletian camp".[237] Di ŋmɛ n deei ŋɔ nyaaŋa, tiŋa ŋɔ daa pahila Homs Province tiŋgbani ni.[238]

Umayyad and early Abbasid periods[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Palmyra daa ti la tooni Umayyad Caliphate saha puuni, ka di ninsali biɛlim pahi.[239] Di daa nyɛla zanibu sheei ni talahi to East-West daabiligu soli zuɣu, din mali daa, souq (market) zaɣititali, Umayyads ni daa mɛ shɛli,[240] [240]ŋun daa lahi pili Temple of Bel yaɣishɛli zaŋ leei jiŋli la . [240]Lala saha ŋɔ, Banu Kalb zuliya n daa gbubi Palmyra ka di kpɛma.[241] Marwan II ni daa nyaŋba civil war in the caliphate saha, Umayyad "contender" Sulayman ibn Hisham daa yini chaŋ Banu Kalb din be Palmyra, amaa ka daa zaŋ o kpalanzuya gbuniMarwan 744 saha; Palmyra daa zaɣisiri la Marwan pɔi ka Banu Kalb toondana al-Abrash al-Kalbi daa ti yi polo yuuni 745.[242] Lala yuuni ŋɔ, Marwan daa bori di mi ni bɛ wurim tiŋa ŋɔ gooni la.[237][243]

Taawaaye daa niŋ la yuuni750, Majza'a ibn al-Kawthar mini Umayyad pretender Abu Muhammad al-Sufyani n daa nyɛ di tooni, Abbasid Caliphate ban daa nyɛ ninvuɣi pala ka gili Syria luɣili kam la ka bɛ daa tuhira;[244] bala ban daa be Palmyra daa soŋsi lala taawaaye ŋɔ ni.[245] O nyaŋbu nyaaŋa Abu Muhammad daa bola soɣibu sheei tiŋ ŋɔ ni[245].

Decentralization[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Stone wall, with an arch and pillars
Fortifications at the Temple of Bel

Abbsid yaa daa nyɛla din baligi 10th century ni, dini daa niŋ ka empire maa nyɛ dun daa wali ka nyɛ dini piri shɛŋa ti vassals.[246] Toodan palibi maa pam daa nyɛla ban kuli lihi caliph ka di nyɛ bi yaa, binshɛli din daa tuɣi hali ni saha shɛli Mongol destruction of Abbasid Caliphate yuuni 1258.[247]

Tiŋ maa niribi kalinli daa nyɛla din pili boobu 19th century ni ka daa kuli nyɛ din tuɣi hali ni 10th century ni.[248] Yuuni 955 Sayf al-Dawla, ŋun daa nyɛ Hamdanid nabia Aleppo, daa nyɛla ŋun tuhi nyaŋ nomads tiŋ maa ni,[249] ka daa mɛ kasbah ( fortress) dini daa niŋ ka Byzantine nanima Nikephoros II Phokas ni John I Tzimemiskes ni daa niŋdi campaigns. 11th century nyaaŋa, Hamdanid daa nyɛla din kpi, Homs yaɣili maa daa nyɛla din be Mirdasid dynasty sulinsi ni.[250] Tingbani dambu daa nyɛla din saɣim Palmyra yuuni 1068 ni 1089 ni.[34][251] Yuuni 1070 ni Seljuk Empire nim daa nyɛla ban ŋme n deegi Syria,[252] ka yuuuni 1082 ni Homs district daa nyɛla din labi Arab zuɣulana, Khalaf ibn Mula'ib sulinsi ni.[250] O daa nyɛla Seljuq Sultan Malik-Shah I ni daa yiɣisi so ka daa zaŋo niŋ sarika ni yuuni 1090.[250][253][253] Khalaf tingbana daa nyɛla dini zaŋ shɛli ti mabidoo, Tutush I,[254] ŋun daa deegi o maŋ sulinsi dini daa niŋ ka o biɛlu koʋ o nyɛvili yuuni 1092, ka daa nyɛ ŋun kpa cadet branch din be Seljuk dynasty Syria tingbani ni.[255]

Ruins of an old stone castle
Fakhr-al-Din al-Maani Castle

Di daa ti yɛn paagi 12th century, tiŋ maa niribi daa nyɛla ban chaŋ Temple of Bel yaarumaani;[256] Palmyra daa nyɛla Toghtekin, ŋun daa nyɛ Burid atabeg Damascus ni , ni pa su shɛli sulinsi, o daa piigi o ŋahinga ka o leegi tiŋ maa toondana.[257] Toghtekin ŋahingi maa nyɛla bibiɛhi ni daa ku so ka atabeg daa labi deegu tiŋ maa yuuni 1126 ni[257] . Palmyra daa nyɛla dini zaŋshɛli ti Tightekin yaaŋa, Shibab -ud-din Mahmud,[257] bini daa zaŋ Yusuf ibn Firuz zali so zaani dini daa niŋ ka Shibab-ud-din Mahmud daa labi Damascus, o ba Taj al-Muluk Buri ni daa deegi Toghtekin.[258] Buridnima daa nyɛla ban liɛbigi Temple if Bel leegi citadel yuuni 1132, dun daa kpaŋsi tiŋ maa,[259][260] ka daa zaŋli ti Bin Qaraja daŋ maa yuma ata nyaaŋa ka di nyɛ bi daa zaŋlimi taɣi Homs.[260]

12th century sunsuni, Palmyra daa nyɛla Zengid naa Nur ad- Din Mahmud ni gbibi shɛli.[261] Di daa nyɛla din pa pahi Homs district zuɣu,[262] ka daa nyɛ dini zaŋ shɛli ti fiefdom n ti Ayyubid toondana Shirkuh yuuni 1168 ka daa lahi nyɛ binshɛli bini lahi labi deegi o kum nyaaŋa yuuni 1169 ni.[263][264] Homs yaɣili daa nyɛla Ayyubid sultanate ni deegi shɛlu yuuni 1174;[265] yuun shɛlu din daa pa di zuɣu maa, Saladin daa nyɛla ŋun zaŋ Homs ( ni Palmyra) n ti o dachee Nasir al-Din Muhammad.[266] Saladin kum nyaaŋa, Ayyubid daa nyɛla din piri ka Palmyra daa nyɛ bini zaŋ shɛli nti Nasir al- Din Muhammad biya Al-Mujahid Shirkuh II ( ŋun daa mɛ Palmyra castle dini mi shɛlu Fakhr-al- Din al - Maani Castle kamani yuuni 1230).[267] Yuma an[268]u poi, Syria joografa Yaqut al-Hamawi daa buɣisi niribi ban be Palmyra ka dama bi bɛla castle ni ka kuɣili gooni giliba.[254]

Mamluk period[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Palmyra daa nyɛla Shirkuh II yaanga, al-Ashraf Musa ŋun mini Mongol naa Hulagu Khan daa nyɛ zori ka nyɛ ŋun daa zo dini daa niŋ ka bi daa tuhi nyaŋ Mongol yuuni 1260 ni Battle of Ain Jalut bimini Mamluks zabii ni daa zaŋ luɣu shɛli leegi tiligibu shee.[269]Al-Ashraf Musa daa nyɛla ŋun yɛli Mamluk sultan Qutuz ni o chɛli paŋo, ka daa saɣi ka daa nya bini zaŋ so leegi vassal.[269] Al-Ashraf Musa daa nyɛla ŋun koŋ o nyɛvili yuuni 1263 ka ŋun daa yɛn zani o zaani kani, din daa ti che ka Homs district labi Mamluk sulunsi ni.[270]


Al Fadl principality[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Date trees, with Palmyra in the background
Palmyra's gardens

Al Fadl duunoli ( Tayy balli ) daa nyɛla ban kuli doli Mamluknima ni yɛlumaŋli, yuuni 1281 ni, Prince Issa bin Muhanna ŋun daa yi Al Fadl duunoli maa ni na daa nyɛla sultan Qalawun ni piigi so Palmyra zuɣulana.[271] Issa bia daa nyɛla ŋun bia daa deego yuuni 1284 ni, Muhanna bin Issa zultan al-Ashraf Khalil ni daa gbaagi so niŋ sarika yuuni 1293, ka daa lahi nyɛ sultan al-Adul Kitbugha ni labisi so ʒili.[272] Muhana daa nyɛla ŋun zaŋ o yɛlimaŋli tu Öljaitü ŋun daa yi Ikhanate na yuuni 1312 ka daa nyɛ Sultan an-Nasir Muhammad ni kari so ka zaŋ o tizodoo Fadl xalu o zaani.[272] Di bahi bahindi an-Nasir daa che Muhanna taali ka daa nyɛ dini labisi so ʒilu yuuni 1317, o mini o balli maa daa nyɛla bini yihi shɛbi tiŋ maa ni dama o mini Ilkhanate daa na mali shaɣani ni taba,[273] bi daa zaŋ balli naa Muhammmad ibn Abi Bakr zali o zaani.[274]

Muhanna daa nyɛla an- Nasir ni che so taali ka labisoo yuuni 1330; o daa nyɛla ŋun kuli dolu sultan maa ni yɛlmaŋli hali ni o kum saha yuuni 1335, dini daa niŋ ka o bidibgi daa deego.[274]

Taarihi baŋda, Ibn Fadlallah al-Omari daa nyɛla ŋun buɣisi tiŋ maa ka di mali tihi pam, daabiligu dun chɛni tooni ni tungbani niɛma tiɛri.[275] Al Fadl duunoli maa daa nyɛla ban kuli gbibi daabilim soya ni tinkpansi ka che Bedouin kpɛbu,[276] ni zabili bi maŋ maŋ sunsuni.[277]Mamluknima daa nyɛla ban zaŋ linjimanima kpe tiŋ maa ni pam, ka daa kari, ka kpɛhi bee n yihi bi toondaambi tiŋ maa ni.[277] Yuuni 1400 Palmyra daa nyʋla Timur ni ŋme n kpe shɛli; Fadl Nu'air daa nyɛla ŋun zo ka chd tobu maa ka daa ti chaŋ ti tuhi Jakam, ŋun daa nyɛ Alleppo sultan.[278] Nu'air daa nyɛla dini gbaagi so ka daa zaŋo n chaŋ Allepo ti ku yuuni 1406; Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani daa yɛliya ni ŋoloŋo daa nyɛla din che ka Al Fadl duunoli yaa naagi.[278][279]

Ottoman era[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

People in an alley, with ruins in the background
The village, within the Temple of Bel, during the early 20th century

Dini daa kuli niŋ ka Syria luɣa pam daa nyɛ din be Ottoman sulinsi ni yuuni 1516, Palmyra ( Tadmur) daa nyɛla dini daa nabi zaŋ shɛli pahi Empire maani poi ka ka Iraq daa ŋme n deegi tiŋ maa yuuni 1534 hali ni 1535. Di daa nyɛla din tuui nyɛ administrative ditrict tinzuɣu ( sanjak) yuuni 1560 saha maa.[280][281][281] Yaɣili maa daa nyɛla din niŋ talahi n ti Ottomanima ka di nyɛla dini daa kuli mali yalim maa. Yuuni 1568 ni, sancrak toondana daa nyɛla ŋun labisi medieval citadel na.[282] Yuuni 1568 nyaaŋa, Ottomanima daa nyɛla ban piigi Lebanese emir Ali bin Musa Hatfush n leegu Palmyra sanjak toondana,[283] ka daa lahi nyɛ ban karo yuuni 1584.[284] Yuuni 1630 ni Oalmyra daa nyɛla ban daa ba be fukumsi ni ka di nyɛ Lebenese emir, Fakhr al Din II n daa nyɛ di fukumsi kpɛma,[285] ka daa nyɛ ŋun labi mali shirkuh IIs castle ( dini daa pa mi shɛlu Fakhr al Din al Maani Castle).[268][286] O daa nyɛla ŋun mini Ottomanima maa daa mali yɛltoɣ' bihi ka daa koŋ tiŋ maa gbibbu din daa kuli nyɛ din nyɛ sanjak din waligi hali ka di daa ti zaŋli pahi Zor Sanjak zuɣu yuuni 1857.[287] Ottoman toondana zaŋ n ti Syria, Mehmed Rashid Pasha daa nyɛla ŋun kpa garrison tinkpaŋ maa ni, ni du gbibi Bedouin yuuni 1867.[288][289]

20th Century[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Yuuni 1918 ni, World War I ni daa nyɛ din kuli naari maa, Royal Air Force daa nyɛla ban mɛ alapilee yiɣibu shee ti alapilee dibaayi,[290][290] ka silimin goli November ni, Ottomannima daa nyɛla ban tiri gbini ka che Zor Sanjak ka zabili daa ka dini.[291][291] Syrian Emirates linjimanima daa nyɛla ban kpe Dier ez- Zor silimin goli 4 December,ka Zor Sanjak daa nyɛ din pa pahi Syria zuɣu.[291] Yuuuni 1919, dini daa niŋ ka Britainima ni Frenchima kuli ŋmɛri nangbani kpeeni zaŋ ka tiŋ maa mandates,[290] ŋun daa nyɛ ŋun zani Britain linjimanima zaani Supreme War Council Henry Wilson daa yɛliya ni di zaŋ Palmyra pahi British mandate. Amaa , British general Edmund Allenby daa nyɛla ŋun kuli zaŋ balima doli o gomanti ni bi di saɣiti lala ŋo.[290] Syria( n ti pahi Palmyra) daa nyɛla din pahi French Mandate ni dini daa niŋ ka bi tuhi nyaŋ Syria Battle of Maysalun silimin goli 24 July yuuni 1920 ni.[292]

Dini daa niŋ ka Palmyra nyɛ din daa niŋ talahi French nima ni daa kuli bori ni bi deegi Syrian Desert, bi daa nyɛla ban me bi linjima nima biɛhigu shee tinkpaŋ shɛli din daa baɣi Temple of Bel yuuni 1921 ni.[293] Yuuni 1929 ni Henri Seyrig daa nyɛla ŋun pili din daa kuli saɣim daa daabu ka daa nyɛ ŋun balim tinkannima maa ni bi yi n chaŋ ti ʒini tinkpan palli shɛli French nima ni daa mɛ ka di kuli baɣi luɣishɛli bini daa be maa.[294] Bi yiɣisibu maa daa nyɛla din naagi yuuni 1932;[295] Palmyra tiŋkurili maa daa nyɛla din shili bi ni di daagi, dama tinkpannima maa daa nyɛla ban labi ti ʒini tinkpaŋ palli din yuli booni Tadmur.[296][294] World War II maa ni, Mandate maa daa nyɛla dun be Vichy France fukumsuni,[297] ŋun daa ti Nazi German soli ni bi yuusi alapilee yiɣibu shee din daa be Palmyra;[298] Free France linjimanima , British linjimanima ni daa ʒa shɛbi nyaaŋa daa nyɛla ban ŋme n kpe Syria silimin goli June yuuni 1941,[297] silimin goli 3 July yuuni 1941Britishnima daa nyɛla ban deegi tiŋ maa sulinsi battle maa nyaaŋa.[299]

Syrian civil war[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Destructions in Palmyra
Sculpture in the Palmyra Museum, before and after the conflict.

Dini daa niŋ ka Syria civil war, daa nyɛ din tuhi maa, Palmyra daa nyɛla bibɛhi ni kuli kpe luɣ'shɛli n ti saɣim binyɛra.[300] Yuuni 2013 ni, Temple of Bel façade daa nyɛla din kuli nyɛ vo karili ka di nyɛla motar fire n daa tahi li na, ka columnima gbaa daa nyɛ dini zaŋ shrapnel saɣim shɛli.[300] Maamoun Abdulkatum daa yɛliya ni Syria army daa nyɛla ban zaŋ bi niribi zali niɛma tiɛri ŋo gbini,[300] ka ban daa kuli tuhiri Syria mii nyɛ ban daa zani garichenima din daa be tiŋ maa ni.[300]

Silimin goli 13 May yuuni 2015,ISIL daa nyɛla ban liri Tadmur, ka ŋoloŋo daa nyɛ din kpɛhi niribi ni iconoclatic dabiɛm kadama lala niribi ŋo nyɛla ban yɛn saɣim tiŋ kurili din baɣi Palmyra.[301] Silimin goli 21 May,binyɛra daa nyɛla dini kpiɣi shɛli yi Palmyra museum n tahi Damascus, ni di ti bo soɣiri suŋ tili; Greco-Roman busts, nyingo koriti , ni dini daa kuli liri museum maa tu kpiɣi binshɛŋa nyɛla dini daa nyɛ shɛli tinduya daani.[302] ISIL niribi daa nyɛla ban kpe Palmyra lala dabisili ŋo.[303] Tiŋ maa niribi daa yɛliya ni Syrian Air Force daa nyɛla ban luhi tiŋ maa buɣim silimin goli 13 June, ka di nyɛ din daa saɣim nuzaa gooni din daa miri Temple of Baalshamin.[304] Saha shɛli dini daa niŋ ka ISIL nima daa nyɛ ban be yaɣili ŋo, Palmyra theatre daa nyɛla dini mali niribi chani ti kura, di bahi bahindi bi mini ban daa kuli tuhiri maa; vidionima daa nyɛla ISIL nima ni yihi shɛli nan wuhiri bini daa kuri Syria dansarikanima niribi tooni theatre maa ni.[305][305][306] Silimin goli August, Palmyra antiquities ban che tuma naa, Khaled al-Asaad daa nyɛla ISIL nima ni daa ŋma so zuɣu,bini daa kuli nahimmo goli ni bi nya lahibali zaŋ kpa tiŋ maa ni di arizichinima; al-Asaad daa nyɛla ŋun zaɣisi ni o tiba lahibali.[307]


Russian airstrikes daa soŋ Syria gomnanti linjimanima ka bi labi deegi Palmyra silimin goli 27 March yuuuni 2016 dini daa kuli niŋ ka bi mini ISIL nima ŋo daa nyɛ ban kpe tabi ni.[308] Lahibaya din daa yina tuuli daa wuhiya ni saɣimbu shɛli dini daa niŋ lala luɣa ŋo ni daa nyɛla din bali gari bini di tiɛhiri sham, ka luɣa pam daa na kuli nyɛla din zaya.[309] Dini daa labi deegi tiŋ maa, Russia nima daa nyɛla ban kuli daari neeri ISIL nima ni daa niŋ tingbani ni bi gbiri nyɛri binyɛra.[310] Dini daa niŋ ka zabi karili daa nyɛ din niŋ, ISIL nima daã lahi nyɛla ban labi deegi tiŋ maa silimin goli 11 December yuuni 2016,[311] ka Syria linjimanima daa nyɛ ban labi deegi tiŋ maa silimin goli 2 March yuuni 2017.[312][313]

Gomnanti[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Inscription on a stone pillar
Inscription in Greek and Aramaic honoring the strategos Zabdilas, whose Roman name was Julius Aurelius Zenobius, dated 242-243 AD.[314]

Tum di taarihi piligu hali ni 1st century AD, Palmyra daa na nyɛla sheikhdom,[254] ka dini daa ti paagi 1st century BC, palmyrene daa nyɛla din pa pili lɛbigibu.[315] 1st century AD tuuli prigili,Palmyra daa nyɛla din zaŋ tuma duri din be Greek ( polis) na bi ya[254] ; din daa wuhi ni niri nyɛla tiŋbia, daa nyɛla dini daa tuu nyɛ shɛli sabbu din dabisili daa nyɛ AD 10, ka daa bolindi " Palmyra niriba". [254]Yuuni AD 74, sabbu daa lahi nyɛla din boli tiŋ maa boule( senate). Bala tuma Palmyra nyɛla dini kuli ŋmɛri shɛli nangban kpeeni ;[254] 1st century la saha, niribi anahi ban daa kuli za bala anahi maa zaani nyɛla ban daa kuli gbibi tiŋ maa bɛla ka bi tuma ŋo daa ti kpalim la yuli ko dama dini daa ti yɛn paagi 2nd century yaa daa nyɛla dini zaŋshɛli niŋ council nuuni.[316][316]

Palmyrene council maa daa malila niribi ban kalinli daa nyɛ 600 ( bani n daa nyɛ daŋkpamba ban daa yi daŋ shɛli arizichi ni be),[317][317]ka bi za nti tiŋ maa bala anahi maa.[25]

Council maa, din nyɛ president ni daa nyɛ shɛli toondana,[318] daa nyɛla ŋun lihiri tiri tiŋ maa yɛla;[317] di daa nyɛpa din lihiri ka tuma nim chani viɛnyɛla( tuma kamani mɛbu mɛbu), ka dihiri nuu poi ka tingbani laɣidili naayi niŋ, ka deeri farigu,[317] ka daa lahi piiri archons ayi ( lords) yuuni kam.[319][320]Palmyra linjimanima daa nyɛla Strategoi ( generals) ni nyɛ shɛbi toondana, ka di nyɛ councili ŋo n daa piiri lala niri maa.[321][322] Roman tiŋ fukumsinima daa nyɛla daa nyɛla ban niŋdi ka saɣiri tiri Palmyra farigu nima,[323] amaa ka bi nuu timbu gomnanti yɛltoɣa ni daa nyɛla din kuli be tiŋ pam, dama empire maa daa kuli nyɛla din yɛn lihi ka Palmyrene daabilim lɛbigimsim nyɛ din yɛn niŋ Rome Anfaani.[324]Di yi daa niŋ ka bi zali zaligu provincial fukumsinima ni daa nyɛla din yɛn gbarigi Palmyra nim daabilim wulinpihili yaɣili maa, dibahi bahindi Parthia.[325]

Dini daa niŋ ka di duhi Palmyra n leegi colonia yuuni 213-216 ni, tiŋ maa daa nyɛla din bi lahi pa Roman govenors ni gbibi shɛli ka bi lahi yori farigu tiriba.[326]Palmyra daa nyɛla ban kpiɣi Roman tuma soya pahi bi dinni ka daa nyɛ din kuli gbibi di zaɣ'kuraaa.[327]Council maa daa na kuli nyɛla din kpalim ka strategos daa piigi magistrates ninvuɣ'yino niribi ayi shɛbi bini yii piiri yuuni kam maaa.[327]Lala duumviri ŋo daa nyɛla din pili colonial constitution palli,[327] ka di daa zani archons zaani.[328] Palmyra jintori nini daa nyɛla din taɣi dini daa niŋ ka Odaenathus ni o daŋ maa ni daa du ; sabbu shɛli dini daa nya yuuni 251 daa nyɛla din buɣisi Odaenathus bia, Hairan I ka o nyɛ Palmyra ''Ras''( lord) ( exarch Greek yaɣili sabbu maa ni) ni sabbu shɛli dini daa nya yuuni 252 daa lahi zaŋ yuli ŋo yaha n buɣisi Odaenathus.[185][185]Odaenathus daa nyɛla nimvuɣ'so councilaa ni piigi ni o leegi exarch,[186] din daa kuli nyɛ yu shɛli din bi niŋ bayaana Roman empire maani ka daa lahi pa din pahi Palmyrene nim kali gomnanti tuma duri ni.[185][329] Di daa bi mi o yuli ŋo daa nyɛla din wuhiri linjima tali bee maligumaana,[330] amaa linjima tali n kuli yɛn nyɛ dini daa naan zoogi ka di nyɛ shɛli.[331]Di daa ti yɛn paagi yuuni 257,Odaenathus daa nyɛla dini mi so consularis, da di daa naan too niŋ ka di nyʋ legatus nti Phoenice yaɣili.[330] Yuuni 258 Odaenathus daa nyɛla ŋun pili o jintori tali yɛligibu, ka daa nyɛ ŋun du mba zuɣi zuɣi shɛli Sasanian suhiyiɣisili ni daa tahi shɛli da;[330] ŋo lo ŋo daa nyɛla din tahi Eddessa tobu na,[187] Odaenathus nam duhibu ni niribi laɣisibu din daa ti che ka Palmyra leegi kingdom.[187]

Ŋolo ŋo daa nyɛla din tuɣi tuma duri pam ni,[330][332] amaa duumviri ni council maa daa lahi pa shɛbi nini tuhira yuuni 264 nuaaŋa; Odaenathus daa nyɛla ŋun piigi ŋun yɛn lihiri tiŋ maa.[333] Di yi daa ti niŋ ka toondani maa kani, tiŋ maa daa nyɛla viceroy ni lihiri shɛli zuɣu.[334] Di bahi bahinidi Roman wulinluhili yaɣili kpamba daa nyɛla ban be Odaenathus sulinsi ni, bi daa nyɛla ninvuɣ' shɛba Rome nim ni daa na kuli piira, naa maa n daa kuli su tiŋ maa zaa fukumsi.Zenobia zabili saha, tinkpambi daa nyɛla napaɣa ni piiri shɛba.[335] Ka Palmyrenes nima zaa n daa saɣiti nam zuliya maa ni kuli gbibi tiŋ maa; senator, Septimius Haddudan, daa nyɛla ŋun yuli yina Palmyrenes sabbu ni ka di nyɛ ni o daa soŋdila Aurelian linjimanima 273 zabili la ni.[336][337] Dini daa niŋ ka Romanna bi tuhi wurim tiŋ maa, Palmyra daa nyɛla Rome ni kuli gbibi shɛli,[338] n zaŋ fukumsinima ban paya pahi, bani n daa nyɛ Burids, Ayyubidinima ni Burdouin nanima- ban daa yi Fadl daŋ ni na,[257] ka daa lihiri tiŋ maa tiri Mamlukinima.[339]


Military[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Stone relief depicting warriors
Relief in the Temple of Bel depicting Palmyrene war gods
Palmyrene horseman, in a hunting scene.

Di bahi bahinidi di daa mali linjima nima ni bi kpaŋmaŋa tobu ni , Palmyra daa nyɛla Irfan Shahid ni buɣisi shɛli" Sparta n pahi tiŋsi din be Orient, laribu ni din pahi ka hali bi buɣa gba daa nyɛla binshɛŋa dini mali linjima niɛma yɛlinda".[340] Palmyra soojanima daa nyɛla ban kuli gu tiŋ maa ni di daabilim, ka daa nyɛ din soŋ ka Palmyrene fukumsinima yɛligi yaɣi tiŋ maa goma zuɣu ka lahi taɣiri tiŋ maa daabilim soya.[341]Tiŋ maa daa malila soojanima ;[159] Zabdibel daa nyɛla ŋun be soojanima ban kalinli daa paagi 10,000 tooni 3rd century BC ni,[145] ka Zenobia gba nyɛ ŋun daa bee soojanima ban kalinli daa nyɛ 70,000 tooni, Emesa tobu la ni.[342] Soojanima daa nyɛla dini kpiɣiri shɛba tiŋ maa ni, ni din kulu koɣili.[159] Ban daa pa Palmyrene soojanima gba daa nyɛla dini kpiɣiri shɛba; Nabatean cavalry doo daa nyɛla ŋun daa be Palmyrene unit shɛlu dini daa zaŋ zalu Anah yuuni 132.[171] Palmyra kpiɣibu soya nyɛla dini bi mi shɛlu; di daa naa too niŋ ka tiŋ maa piigu ka ti tiŋ maa nima linjima na ka stategoi daa be bi tooni ka wuhiba dini niŋdi shɛm.[343]

Strategoi daa nyɛla councili ni piiri shɛba ka Rome dihi bi zuɣu.[344] Nanima linjima nima 3rd century AD sunsuni, daa nyɛla ban be monarch sulinsi ni,[345][346] ka daa nyɛ buni wuhiri shɛba sasanians Tobu niɛma soya.[44] Palmyrenes daa nyɛla bini mi ka bi nyɛ archers.[347] Bi daa nyɛla ban zaŋdi infantry ka cavalry ( clibanarii) daa nyɛ din nyɛ binshɛli bini mali zabira.[348][349][350] Palmyra linjimanima daa nyɛla dini zaŋ takobu , lances ni bin taɣirisiri ti shɛba;[169] clibanaril daa nyɛla bini daa kuli tiri shɛba tobu niɛma pam ( yuri ni daa pahi shɛli zuɣu ), ka daa nyɛ ban zaŋdi kpana din timsa (kontos) din waɣilim daa nyɛ 3.65 metres ( 12.0 ft) ka ka bin taɣirisi.[350][351][352]

Relations with Rome[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Ayi lihi Palmyrenes, luɣi shɛŋa niribi ni daa dii kane, Romannima daa nyɛla ban kpa Palmyrene auxilia ni bi nyɛ ban tumdi Imperial Roman army ni.[169] Vespasian daa malilia Palmyrene piɛmtoriba ban kalinli daa nyɛ 8,000 ka bi be Judea,[169] ka Trajan daa nyɛ ban kpa Palmyrene tuuli Auxilla yuuni 116 (a camel calvary unit, Ala I Ulpia dromedariorum Palmyrenorum).[169][353][354] Palmyrene niribi daa nyɛla bini kuli piri shɛbi gili Roman Empire maa,[355] ka bi daa tumdi Dacia Hadrian ŋun daa kani maa saha,[356] ni El Kantara din be Numidia ni Moesia, Antonius Pius sulinsi ni.[356][357] 2nd century maa bahigu, Rome daa nyɛla ban kpa Cohors XX Palmyrenoreum, din daa be Dura- Europus.[358]

Religion[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Palmyra's buɣa daa nyɛla din pun pahi northwestern Semitic pantheon, ni buɣa pahibu din yina Mesopotamian mini Arab pantheons.[359] Tiŋ ŋɔ naa pre-Hellenistic buɣili yuli daa booni Bol,[360] Baal zaɣ jiya (a northwestern Semitic honorific).[361]

Babylonian cult of Bel-Marduk daa mali lebigi Palmyrene adiini ka zaŋ chaŋ 217 BC lala buɣili ŋɔ yuli daa taɣiya leei Bel.[360] Ŋɔ daa bi wuhiri ni di taɣiri la  northwestern Semitic Bol  n ti Mesopotamian deity, amaa di daa ku nyɛla yuli taɣabu.[361] Din daa lahi simdi n pahi ayi, supreme deity nyaaŋa,[362] daa nyɛla Palmyrene zuliya-nima buɣa din yaɣi pihiyobu.[362][363] Palmyra daa mali buɣa din yi diko,[364] buɣa ka maa god of justice mini Efqa's guardian Yarhibol,[365][366] sun god Malakbel,[367] n ti pahi moon god Aglibo.[367] Plmyrenes daa jam regional deities, n ti pahi Levantine gods Astarte, Baal-hamon, Baalshamin ni Atargatis;[364] Babylonian gods Nabu mini Nergal,[364] ni Arab Azizos, Arsu, Šams mini Al-lāt.[364][365]

Buɣa shɛba bini daa jamdi tiŋ ŋɔ kpaŋa daa bini boli lakumi bee yu bariba ka di zuɣu che ka bi mali Arab yuya.[296] Lala buɣa ŋɔ biɛhigu nyɛla din ka buɣisibu ka di nyɛla di yuya ko n biɛni, din kpa pam n-nyɛ Abgal.[368] Palmyrene pantheon daa zaŋ ginnaye (some were given the designation "Gad") pahi,[369] buɣa bihi din laɣam ka bi daa mili tiŋ ŋɔ kpaŋa,[370] bin daa ŋmani Arab jinn ni Roman genius.[371] Ginnaye daa bini nyɛla bini dihitabili ka di mali ninsali biɛhigu, din ŋmani Arab Jinn.[371] Din bi be ka jinn, amaa, ginnaye daa naanku tooi possess ninsala.[371] Bi tuma daa ŋmanila Roman genius: tutelary deities bin guri daadama ni bi daabiligu, niɣi, ni tiŋ-kpansi.[362][371] Amaa, Palmyrenes daa jam bi buɣa ka salinima, bi shɛba daa zaŋ mi ti buɣi shɛba. Bel daa mali Astarte-Belti ka o nyɛ o saawara, ka kpa triple deity ni Aglibol mini Yhibol (who became a sun god in his association with Bel).[365][372] Malakbel daa pahi laɣansi pam ni,[373] n pahi ni Gad Taimi mini Aglibol zuɣu,[374][374] ka kpa buɣa ata ni Baalshamin mini Aglibol.[375] Palmyra daa laɣim Akitu (spring festival) Nisan.[376] Tiŋ ŋɔ yaɣa anahi yini kam daa mali buɣa biɛhigu shee ka nyɛ ka di nyɛ yɛli kura n ti lala zuliya bin be dini; Malakbel mini Aglibol's sɔɣibu-shee daa bela Komare quarter.[377] Baalshamin sanctuary daa bela Ma'zin yaɣili, ka Arsu sanctuary be Mattabol yaɣali,[377] ka Atargatis sanctuary mi be zuliya din pahiri anahi yaɣali.[375][375]

An Altar found in Trastevere dedicated to Malakbel bearing the epithet Sol Sanctissimus

Palmyra tiŋdan-nima daa nyɛla bini pii sbɛba ka bi yina tiŋ ŋɔ daŋ shɛŋa din yuya dura,[378] ka nyɛ bini zaŋdi bi sabirinima n baŋdiba din be ka polos adorned with laurel wreath bee bini tihi mali bronze shɛŋa.[379] Tiŋdana kpɛm zaŋ n ti Bel's temple n daa nyɛ adiini kpɛma ka daa leei tiŋda-nima kpɛma bini daa laɣam shɛba kpehi collegia.[380] Efqa spring's sanctuary niriba bini daa zaŋ n ti Yarhibol daa nyɛla bin be tiŋdanima bin gahim shee ka dama bi zaa daa nyɛla baɣasi.[380] Palmyra's buɣitali ŋɔ daa nyɛla dolodolo adiini ni daa deei shɛli ka nyɛla adiini ŋɔ ni daa gongili luɣili kam Roman Empire, ka bishop daa pun be tiŋ ŋɔ la yuuni 325.[381] Di buɣa duri ŋɔ pam ni daa leegi asori duri nima, Temple of Al-lāt din daa nyɛla bini wurim shɛli yuuni 385 ka di nyɛla Maternus Cynegius (the eastern praetorian prefect) n puhi ni be wurim-mili.[381]

Musulim nima ni daa ŋmɛ n fa naai yuuni 634 islam daa nyɛla di deei Christianity, ka Palmyra bishop ŋun daa bahindi nyaaŋa nyɛla bini daa tibigi yuuni 818 nyaanga.[382]

Malakbel and the Roman Sol Invictus[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Yuuni 274, din daa doli o nasara nyɛbu Palmyra zuɣu, Aurelian daa zaŋ buɣili duu karili din nyɛ Sol Invictus dini ka be Rome;[383][384] baŋdiba pam nyɛya ka Aurelian's Sol Invictus nyɛla Syrian  pilli shee,[385][386] di nyɛla tuɣili n ti emperor Elagabalus cult of Sol Invictus Elagabalus, bee Malakbel of Palmyra.[387] Palmyrene buɣili nyɛla din baŋbu daa nyɛ  Roman god Sol ka o daa buɣi duu shɛli dini be din be Tiber tariga second century.[388] Yaɣa, o daa lahi ʒiila epithet Invictus ka bi daa mi o yuli la Sol "Sanctissimus", din bahindi nyaanga ŋɔ daa nyɛla epithet Aurelian din sabu be din yina Capena.[388] Palmyrene deity zaa n ti Aurelian's Sol Invictus nyɛla din yina Zosimus reading karimbu ni; ni buɣi duu nti sun he (i.e. Aurelian) nyɛla ŋun pina din yina Palmyra, ka leei Helios mini Bel" mɛhi shee.[389] Buɣa ata din yina Palmyra  wuhi solar ŋmahima: Malakbel, Yarhibol ni Šams, din nyɛ baŋbu n ti Palmyrene Helios din yina Zosimus' tuma ni Malakbel.[389] Baŋdiba shɛba nyɛla bin galim Malakbel's baŋbu ni Sol Invictus; Gaston Halsberghe wuhiya, cult of Malakbel daa nyɛŋ local pam ni di leei duma karili ni Roman god ka Aurelian's Bel's temple guli zali ni kpaŋmaŋ n ti Malakbel daa nyɛ din wuhi o maŋ tabilibu ni sun buɣili ka o jilima ni soya pam zaŋ kpa buɣili ŋɔ jambu.[390] Richard Stoneman daa lahi wuhi soli Aurelian ni daa gbaa doli n ti paŋ Malakbel anfooni n zaŋ kpaŋsi o solar buɣili.[391] Malakbel biɛhigu ni Sol Invictus pala din ni tooi kahigi ka mi kulahi kahigi yaha.[388]

Bomma ni nyamma soya/Economy[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Ruins of two stone walls, with doorways
Palmyra's Agora; the two front entrances lead to the interior, the city's marketplac

Palmyra's daabilim pɔi ni Roman piligu daa nyɛla din dahi pukparilim polo, binkɔbiri kparilim, ni kɔhima;[392] tiŋ ŋɔ daa nyɛla vuhim sheei n ti daabihi ban daa baari kariti bopiɛlim din be dini maa.[392] Zaŋ chaŋ tuuli century BC daa ti yan naai, tiŋ ŋɔ daa daabilim balibu din gbaai ka maa pukparilim, binkɔbiri kparilim, farigu yobu,[392][392] ni din daa lahi niŋ talahi, caravan kɔhigu.[392] Farigu yobu daa nyɛla soli shɛli din tiri Palmyrene gɔmnanti laɣiri pam.[392] Kɔrikoriba daa yɔri la farigu duu shɛli bini daa mi Tariff Court,[392] dini ka farigu yobu zali pkana daa be AD 137.[392][392] Zali kpana ŋɔ daa zami, ni farigu shɛli daabihi ni yo ka di nyɛla be nɛma din kohi tiŋ ŋɔ daani, beei n zaŋ yi tiŋ ŋɔ ni.[392][392][392]

Andrew M. Smith II daa wuhiya ni tiŋ ŋɔ n daa su tingbana pam din be Palmyra, din daa deei farigu pam.[392] Koma yaɣali ŋɔ daa mali la 1,000 hectares (2,500 acres) binidira kom yɔɣabu tingbani,[392] din gili tiŋ ŋɔ.[392]

Palmyrenes daa nyɛla bin mɛ irrigation system din be toondinipolo zoya la din mali ko gbahirisi ka di chani n ti gbaari ka guri saa kom soŋda.[392]

Bindira kom-yɔɣibu tuma nyɛla Harbaqa Dam bini daa mɛ shɛli la tuuli century Ad;[392][392] di bela 48 km (30 mil) toondini-nudirigu tiŋ ŋɔ ni ka ni tooi deei  kom 140,000 cubic metres (4,900,000 cu ft).[392] Terebinth tihi din be teeku nyaansi n daa nyɛ bini daa nyɛri sala, resin ni kam; di mini shɛhirili dii kani, di daa naa tooi niŋ ka olive tihi gba sa, ka be maandi milki nim tiŋ kpansi.[392] Din beni ni barley gba daa nyɛla bini ni tooi kɔri shɛli.[392] Amaa, pukparilim daa saɣim daadam bɛligu maa ka be yi sambani n ti daa da bindirigu kpɛna.[392]

Palmyra's ni daa wurim naai 273, di daa leei la daa dibu sheei n ti tiŋ-kpaŋ nim din ko n gili dini maa.[392] Tiŋ ŋɔ daa labi nyɛ di tihigimsim Umayyad saha, din wuhi noli be Umayyad souq din be colonnaded palli suɣu.[392] Palmyra daa nyɛla daabilim ni niŋdi shɛli naɣala bini daa ti wurim li yuuni 1400;[392] Sharaf ad-Din Ali Yazdi ni yɛli shɛm, Timur's daa kpuɣi pɛri ka maa 200,000,[392] ka tiŋ titali ŋɔ daa siɣisi leei la bɛhigu sheei n be bɔpiɛligu din niriba daa nyɛ pɛ kpariba ka lahi kɔri bin wala ni kawana.[392]

Commerce[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Palmyra caravan. Palmyra Archaeological Museum
Map of the Silk Road, from China to Europe
The Silk Road

Di yi ka di nyɛla Laghman II sabu din be Afghanistan nyɛla din tiri Palmyra, din ŋuna tiŋ ŋɔ tuma Central Asian overland daa nyɛla din mali yuli pam ka maa third century BC.[142] Tuuli centuries AD saha, Palmyra's daa soli daa nyɛla din chaŋ wulinpuhili hali Euphrates luɣishɛli dini din gbaai Hīt tiŋa.[393] Soli daa ŋɔ doli nyaaga n doli moɣali n kpa Charax Spasinu din be Persian Gulf, luɣa shɛli Palmyrene sitima ni daa doli gɔ n kpe Indian.[394] Nema daa nyɛla bini daa India, China ni Transoxiana,[395] ka daa exported wulinluhili n ti Emesa (or Antioch) ka naa che Mediterranean ports,[396] dini ka  bi daa tarili n gili Roman Empire.[394]

Din pahi soli Palmyrene daa bihi daa doli la Red Sea,[395] ka di daa nan tooi nyɛla Roman–Parthian Wars zuɣu.[397] Neɛma daa nyɛla bini kpuɣi seaports hali ni Nile port, ka kpuɣi chaŋ Egyptian Mediterranean ports ni ti yi tiŋduya ti kɔhi.[398] Sabu din wuhiri Palmyrene Egypt benibu yina la Hadrian saha.[399]

Dini daa niŋ ka Palmyra daa bi be daabiligu pali daa zuɣu, (din doli Euphrates),[171] Palmyrenes daa deei bɔpiɛlim din daa gari bi tiŋ ŋɔ ni.[171] Bi daa zaŋli to yoo Euphrates valley, ka di tiri kom mini gbebu shee.[171] Palmyrene soli n daa nyɛ yoo Silk Road n ti Mediterranean,[400] ka daa nyɛ tiŋ ŋɔ ko daabihi pam ni ku doli, bin daa gbubi biɛhigu ni tiŋ bɔbugu,[171] bin din gbaai Dura-Europos yuuni 33 BC,[401] Babylon yuuni AD 19, Seleucia yuuni AD 24,[165] Dendera, Coptos,[402] Bahrain, Indus River Delta, Merv mini Rome.[403] Caravan daa doli la patrons mini dabihi.[404] Patrons daa sula tiŋgbani shɛli caravans niɣi daa be, n tiri daabihi bin kobri.[404] Tiŋgubna ŋɔ daa bela tiŋ kpaŋsi pam din be Palmyrene tariga.[296] Amaa di mini daabihi daa zaŋ patrons n kpa daabilim, be bukaata daa naaya ka a ni too nyɛ saha ka patron caravan chaŋ.[404] Commerce daa che ka Palmyra mini di daabihi n pahi bundanima bin be yaɣali maa.[405] Caravans ŋɔ shɛba daa nyɛla daabi gaŋ ni yo,[22] ka maa Male' Agrippa ŋun daa yo Hadrian's gɔrim yuuni 129 ni 139 Temple of Bel labi mɛ ni).[174] Bini dindaa yihiri laɣiri na daabligu mɛma ni n daa nyɛ silinchi, din daa nyɛ bini kɔhiri n tiri Wulinluhili hali gbaa wulinluhili.[406] Neen shɛŋa bini daa tooi lahi kɔhi n ti tiŋduya n nyɛ jade, muslin, spices, ebony, ivory ni precious stones.[403] Di yiŋ daa ŋɔ daa che ka Palmyra tooi da tiŋduya bindira din gbaai slaves, prostitutes, olive oil, dyed goods, myrrh ni perfume.[407][403]

Research and Excavations[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

A road of colonnades
The Colonnade
Four groups of four columns each
The Tetrapylon (destroyed in 2017)

Palmyra tuuli kunduni buɣisibu daa nyɛla din tuu yina yuuni 1696, kundu shɛli Abednegi Seller ni daa sabi.[408] Yuuni 1751, Robert Wood ni James Dawkins daa nyɛla ban kuli be niribi tooni ka bi daa karim Palmyra mɛbu mɛbu.[409] French bomda ni ŋun mɛra, ŋun yuili daa booni Louis François-Cassas daa nyɛla ŋun daa kpa vihigu tiŋ maa niɛma tiɛrini yuuni 1785 ni , ka daa zaŋ Palmyra mɛbu bombu din kalinli daa gari kobiga ni di gbala n wuhi salo.[410]Palmyra daa nyɛla dini tuu ŋmaagi shɛli anfooni yuuni 1864 ni ka di nyɛ Louis Vignes n daa nyɛ ŋun ŋmaagi lala anfooni ŋo.[410] Yuuni 1882 ni, " Palmyrene Tarrrif" din daa nyɛ bini sabi shɛli n pa kuɣili zuɣu yuuni AD 137 Greek ni Palrmyrene n yɛri wuhiri niɛma zaŋ kpɛhi ni di zaŋ yi tiŋ maa ni farigu, daa nyɛlaprice Semyon Senyonovich Abamelik- Lazarev ni daa nyɛ shɛli Tarrif Court ni.[411] Di nyɛla taarihi baŋda John F.Mathews ni buɣisi shɛli ka di nyɛ " binshɛŋa zaɣ'yini din kuli wuhiri daabilim shɛhira Roman Empire yaɣili".[412] Yuuni 1901 ni, lala kuɣili ŋo nyɛla Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II ni daa zaŋ shɛli nti Russian Tsar pini, ka pumpoŋo di yi pa be Hermitage Museum din be Saint Petersburg.[413]

Excavations at Palmyra, 1962, Polish archaeologist Kazimierz Michałowski

Palmyra daabu bee wurimbu tuuli daa nyɛla dini niŋ shɛli yuuni 1902 ka di nyɛ Otto Puchstein n daa niŋli, Theodor Wiegand daa lahi niŋ shɛli yuuni 1917 ni.[295]Yuuni 1929 ni, French darekita of antiquities of Syria ni Lebanon, Henri Seyrig daa nyɛla ŋun pili daabu pam lala ni maani;[295] ka World War II da nyɛ din zalli soli, di daa lahi nyɛla din pili tuma tobu maa ni daa kuli naagi.[295] Seyrig daa nyɛla ŋun zaŋ Temple of Bel pili yuuni 1929 ni, yuuni 1939 ni 1940 sunsuni o daa nyɛla ŋun daagi Agora.[296]

Daniel Schlumberger daa nɛla ŋun daagi Palmyrene nuzaawulinluhili waɣili yuuni 1934 ni 1935 ni, ka daa nyɛ ŋun kuli karim sanctuary nim balibu din daa be Palmyrene tinkpansi.[296] Yuuni 1954 hali zan gbaagi 1956, Swiss vihigu, UNESCO na ni daa kpa shɛli daa nyɛla ban daagu Temple of Baalshamin.[295] Tum yuuni 1958,yaɣili maa daa nyɛla Syruan Directorate-General of Antiquities,[294]ni Polish expeditions of Polish Centre of Medditerranean Archeology University of Warsaw nim ni daa daa shɛli,[414] ka tingbani baŋdibi pam n ti paji Kazimierz Michalowski ( hali ni 1980) ni Michael Gawikowski ( hali ni yuuni 2009) nima ni daa kuli be shɛli tooni.[295][415]Statigraphic soundining din daa be Temple of Bel daa nyɛla Robert du Mesnil du Buisson ni daa niŋ shɛli,[416] ka daa lahi nyɛ ŋun nyaTemple of Baal-hamon yuuni 1970 ni.[93]Yuuni 1980 ni, taarihi yaɣa n ti pahi necropolis din daa be goma maa nyaaŋa daa nyɛ UNESCO ni daa boli shɛli World Heritage Site.[417]

Polish vihigu gorim ŋo daa nyɛla bandaa zaŋ bi zaɣa niŋ bi tuma din be Camp of Diocletin ni ka Syrian Directorate- General of Antiquities daa daagi Temple of Nabu.[296] Yaɣa ŋo pam daa nyɛla Polish vihigu gorimnima ni Syrian Directorate ni daa laɣim daa shɛli,[418] ka Jean Starcky ni Jafar al -Hassani gba daa laɣim daagi Efqa yaɣili maa.[419]

Palmyrene puuni kom bahibu soya daa nyɛla dini nyɛ shɛli yuuni 2008 ka di nyɛ Jorgen Christian Meyer n daa nyɛli, ka daa lahi niŋ vihigu Palmyrene yaɣili ka di nyɛla o daa kuli gindimi lihirili li satelllite anfoonima.[420] Palmyra yaɣili pam na nyɛla luɣ'shɛli niribi ni na kuli bi lihi balintee yaɣi shɛli din be nudirigu ni nuzaa ka necropolis nyɛ luɣi shɛli Directorate ni Polish expedition nim ni kuli daa pam.[419] Vihigu ni daabu maa daa nyɛla dini che shɛli yuuni 2011 ni ka di daliri nyɛ Syria tobu maa zuɣu.[421]

Notes[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

{{reflist|group=note|colwidth=30em}

lihi pahi[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Lua bi niŋ dede:bad argument #2 to 'title.new' (unrecognized namespace name 'Portal')

External links[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Kundivihira[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

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    Schultens argued that in the Bible (1 Kings 9:18), the name is written "Tamor" in the text and "Tadmor" in the margin.[2] Schultens considered "Tamor" to be the original name and derived from "Tamar".[3] However, the inclusion of a -d- in "Tamar" cannot be explained.[4]
  2. Pliny mentioned that Palmyra was independent, but by AD 70, Palmyra was part of the Roman empire; modern scholars dismiss Pliny's account of Palmyra's political situation, considering it to rely on older accounts dating to the period of Octavian, when Palmyra was independent.[7]
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