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Abu Mena

Diyila Dagbani Wikipedia
Abu Mena
archaeological site
Pahi laList of World Heritage in Danger Mali niŋ
Siɣili-lana yuliMenas of Egypt Mali niŋ
TiŋaEgypt Mali niŋ
Din be shɛli polonaAlexandria, Second Amreya district Mali niŋ
Wakati luɣiliUTC+02:00 Mali niŋ
Dini be shɛliAlexandria, Second Amreya district Mali niŋ
Tiŋgbaŋ yaɣili calinli30°50′28″N 29°39′49″E Mali niŋ
Heritage designationWorld Heritage Site Mali niŋ
World Heritage soliWorld Heritage selection criterion (iv) Mali niŋ
Map

E-Class

Abu Mena ( spelled Abu Mina; Coptic: ⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲙⲏⲛⲁ; Arabic: أبو مينا pronounced [æbuˈmæyːnæ]) daa nyɛla tiŋ'titali, monastery complex mini Asori nima jɛma sheei n-daa be Egypt daadaa ha, di mini Southwest Alexandria waɣilim paai50 km (31 mi), ka di mini New Borg El Arab tiŋ'karili la baɣi taba.[1] Din daa kpalim daa nyɛla shɛli dini zaŋ World Heritage Site ti yuuni 1979 di bahi bahindi dini nyɛ tiŋ timsili ti tuuli dolodolo nima. Dikili jina nyɛla din na kuli zaya amaa luɣi shɛŋa kamani great basilica ni du gahinda nyɛla din na kuli zaya ka niri nyɛrili.

Koli tuma nyɛla din che ka tiŋ maa kom duna zuɣusaa, ka di chɛ ka mɛbu shɛŋa lu ka shɛŋa mii dahim zaya. Di daa nyɛla dini zaŋ shɛli pahi World Heritage luɣi shɛli muɣisigu ni be yuuni 2001. Kpambi daa nyɛla bini che ka bi soŋ tan kpaɣu di gbinni luɣi shɛŋa din daa kuli dahim pam.

Notes[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

1."Abu Mena". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 6 September 2021.

2.Room, Adrian (2008). African placenames : origins and meanings of the names for natural features, towns, cities, provinces, and counties. Internet Archive. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co. ISBN 978-0-7864-3546-3.

3. Grossmann, Peter (1998). "The Pilgrimage Center of Abû Mînâ". in D. Frankfurter (ed.),

4.Pilgrimage & Holy Space in Late Antique Egypt. Leiden-Boston-Köln, Brill: p. 282

Talbot, Alice-Mary (2002). 

5."Pilgrimage to Healing Shrines: The Evidence of Miracle Accounts". Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University. 56: 153–173. doi:10.2307/1291860. JSTOR 1291860.

6.Armstrong, Gregory T. (1967). "Constantine's Churches". Gesta. International Center of Medieval Art. 6: 1–9. doi:10.2307/766661. JSTOR 766661. S2CID 191762441.

7.Anderson, William. An Archaeology of Late Antique Pilgrim Flasks, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 54, (2004), pp. 79–93, British Institute at Ankara.

8.Bagnall, Roger S. (2001). "Archaeological Work on Hellenistic and Roman Egypt, 1995–2000". American Journal of Archaeology. Archaeological

9.Institute of America. 105 (2): 227–243. doi:10.2307/507272. JSTOR 507272. S2CID 194049544.

Weitzmann, Kurt (1977). "The 

10.Late Roman World". The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 35 (2): 2–96. doi:10.2307/3259887. JSTOR 3259887.

11.Wilber, Donald N. (1940). "The Coptic Frescoes of Saint Menas at Medinet Habu". The Art Bulletin. College Art Association. 22 (2): 86–103. doi:10.2307/3046689. JSTOR 3046689.

12."Abu Mena: Indicators". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 2017-09-17.

13."Abu Mena (Threats to the Site 2001)". UNESCO. UNESCO. Retrieved October 30, 2018.

14.Ramadan, Ragab. "Funding issues threaten preservation of Christian sanctuary". Egypt Independent. Al-Masry Al-Youm. Retrieved October 30, 2018.

15."Abu Mena(Egypt)". UNESCO. UNESCO. Retrieved October 30, 2018.

16."Smart Sustainable Membrane for Historical Sites Conservation, Case Study: Abu Mena, Alexandria". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2018-12-08.

Taarihi[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Menas ŋun yi Alexandria na daa nyɛla bini ku so 3rd century bahigu bee 4th century piligu.

5th century lahibaya nyɛla din wali bɛla di yi kana o soɣibu ni, ni o asori duu kpabu.Din niŋ talahi nyami, di daa kpiɣila o ningbuna Alrnxandri laakumi zuɣu, dini daa zaŋ shɛli chaŋ desert Lake Mareotis tooni. Di daa ti paagi saha shɛli ka laakumi maa zaɣisi chandi, ka be walim li n'je. Be daa kpiɣi ŋoloŋo kadama di nyɛla Naawuni kadara ka bi daa simso nimaa ni.

Taarihi maa yaɣi shɛŋa yɛliya ni luɣi shɛli dini daa soɣi o maa nyɛla bini daa tam shɛli hali ka shihira ti niŋ ka piɛguli daa baŋli.Ayi lihi Ethopian Synaxarium ( E.A.W Budge lɛbigibu)

Di daa niŋ ka Naawuni bori ni o wuhi luɣi shɛli dini soɣi Minas. Ka piɛguli daa nyɛ ŋun be nimaani shee, dahinshɛli, piɛɣu ŋun daa nyɛ doro ni mali so daa chaŋ ni nti zaŋ o maŋ lohi kom din daa bilisi ka do naa shee, n bilim bilim ka o doro ŋo daa yiɣi ka firi. Piɛguli ŋo ni daa nyɛ lala, ka baŋ shihira maa di daa niŋoo lahiʒiba pam. Di nyaaŋa o daa nyɛla ŋun toori nimaani tankpaɣu, n niŋ kom gabi dini ka mali ʒɛri piɛri maa di yi ti niŋ ka bi gbaa doro, o yi tikuli niŋ lala o yɛn nyami ka piɛɣu maa kpaŋ yom. O daa niŋdili saha kam ka zaŋli tibi doriti nim zaa ban daa kana o sani.

Piɛguli ŋo tibbu yaa daa nyɛla din wuligi gili luɣili kam. Synaxarium buɣisiya wuhi ni Constantine I daa zaŋ o bipuɣinbili chaŋ ni di ti tibo, ka daa yɛli ni lala bipuɣinbili maa n-nyɛ Mena ningbina maa, di nyaaŋa ka Costantine daa puhi ni be me asɔri duu nimaa ni. (Taarihi maa yaɣi shɛli zaŋ Zeno ŋun daa nyɛ 5th century naa n- zali Costantine zuɣu amaa, archeologists nyɛla asɔri duu duu maa tanpuɣili tila 4th century). Di daa ti yɛn paagi 4th century bahigu, di daa nyɛla asɔri niribi ni chani shɛli nti niŋdi jɛma, ka lahi bori tibbu ni shihira nima. Menas flaakinima daa nyɛla din nyɛ zaɣi bihi bini kohiri shɛli tiri ban go n kana maa ka di nyɛ binshɛli ni ko suŋ ni biɛni, bee vigillamp kpam din nyɛ din kuli gili Western Mediterranean zaa, poi ka musilim nima daa ti deegi tiŋ maa sulinsi. Di nyɛla binshɛli din nyɛ alaha amaa ka mena anfooninima tabi li; di yɛliya ni tiŋ maa shee ka bi maandili.

Aracidius saga, archbishop nima daa nyɛla ban kpahim ka salo zoogi pam asori du bili maa ni. O daa sabi ti naa ŋun be wulinpuhili zuɣu, ka o daa puhi ka di yɛligi gili, dini n daa nyɛ tuuli asori duri ata yɛligibu ni. Late antiquity ni daa ti naagi, Abu Mena daa leegi dini chani ti luɣi shɛli jɛma zuɣu gari luɣili kam Egypt tingbani ni.

Abu Mena daa nyɛla dini wurim shɛli tuuli Musilinima ni daa deegi tiŋ maa 7th century ni.

Gbibbu soya[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Egypt gomnanti nyɛla ŋun kpiɣi soya ka mali yɛli muɣisirili din jɛndi kom, amaa gomnanti maa ka soya din yɛn ku lala yɛli muɣisirili ŋo. Di ni niŋ ka UNESCO bori maliŋ soya zaŋti tingban nɛma tiɛri maa, bi sabi tiba. Din kuli yɛn soŋsi ŋo nyɛla di zaŋ membrane shɛli din valima ka ni yuugi. Di nyɛla shɛli dini mali ni di soŋsi vuhim, kom ni din pahi nimaa ni. Sochibisi maa nyɛla din wuhi ni di mɛ smart membrane, din yɛn che ka pohim suma too kpɛri ni. Lala smart membrane ŋo lahi nyɛla din yɛn zaŋdi sola batiri nima din be ni nyaaŋa n tiri buɣim. Di lahi nyɛla dini yɛn mali shɛli ka di mali kom tiɛbu soya.


Lahabali kɔligu:Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abu Mena

Archaeological excavations[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Ni maani daa nyɛla dini tuu daa shɛli yuuni 1905 zaŋ hali ni yuuni 1907. Lala ŋo zuɣu daa che ka basilica asɔri duu yi polo, asɔri du shɛli Roman nima ni daa be.

Di nyaaŋa, daabu daa lahi nyɛla din niŋ ka di nyɛla DAI nima n daa niŋli ka daa naagi yuuni 1998. Pumpɔŋɔ na ha daabu maa nyɛla din yihi duu gbɛrili shɛli haʒi chɛndibi ban daa nyɛ faranima ni be, ka di daa mali paɣiba, dabba ni bihi yaɣili. Luɣi shɛli gba daa nyɛla din be basilica nudirigu zuɣu ka di tɛhi ni di daa nyɛla hegoumenos bee abbot biɛhigu shee. Daabu nima maa daa lahi wuhi ni xenodocheion, luɣi shɛli din daa nyɛ dini deeri ban chɛni jema daa nyɛla gballi tuuli ha.

Kom subu shee din baɣi asori duu maa luɣi zuɣu daa nyɛla din nyɛ zoosim buta zuɣu. Dini daa lahi nyɛ binshɛli n daa nyɛ du shɛli dini soŋdi nɛma, binshɛli din ŋmahindi dam ka di saha be 6th ni 6th centuries ni.

Threats[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Abu Mena yaɣali ŋɔ nyɛla bi ni daa zaŋ pahi UNESCO's World Heritage yaɣa din be muɣsiɣu ni yuuni 2001 ka di nyɛla varisiɣu shɛli kom ŋɔ duhibu daa mala. Lala din be kom ŋɔ duhibu daa nyɛla din yina kparilim yɛligibu soya din bɔri labisi tingbani kulim na. Tankpaɣu yaɣari din gili lala yaɣali nyɛla dini ni tooi soŋsi duri diyi niŋ ka di kuui. Amaa, di nyɛla din ku tooi zani yim dii yi niŋ ka di mahigi ka lala zuɣu chɛ ka cisterns ni duri din pahi lun lu kurumbui tiŋ titali ŋɔ ni.[2] Di yi niŋ ka tingbani ŋɔ lun lu, voya zaŋ kara kpuritila dini. So-chibiga daa nyɛla bini kpuɣi ni di bo ŋaribu n ti tankpaɣu ni be yaɣali ŋɔ shɛli ka kparili ka chɛ salo dolibu. N yɛn tooi bɔ maligu n ti yɛl-li ŋɔ,  Antiquities Supreme Council daa nyɛla bin di ariʒichi 45 million niŋ gbibu ni pɔmpi nim pahibu ka mali tahama ni dini baligi irrigation muɣsiɣu. Din yɛn pahi, bi daa zaŋ garichɛ pahi ni di gu ka taɣi sheeibu ni varisiɣu.[3] Ŋɔ maa daa wuhi dini di nasara shɛm ka di suɣu daa chɛ ka bi yihili UNESCO's World Heritage yaɣa din be nyɛvili-pɔhili ni yuuni 2009.[4] Hali ni zuŋɔ, kom nyɛla dinku dura ka sayandi bini mɛ bin shɛŋa n teeiri bi ninvuɣu-timsa yɛla. Yaɣali lan nyɛla din pahi UNESCO's World Heritage yaɣa din be muɣsiɣu ni. Yɛltɔɣa shɛŋa bini nyɛ ka di nyɛ dini n mali muɣsiɣu n ti yaɣili ŋɔ yuuni 2018 n-nyɛ housing, management activities, managements systems/plan, and water.[5]

Taɣibu[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Egyptian gɔmnanti nyɛla ŋun kɣuɣi plaŋ kadi soŋsi kari laa kom dubu barina maa, amaa tini ʒi saha shɛli ŋɔ gɔmnanti ka yuundi maŋli plagŋ beei bin shɛɣu zaŋ kpa di polo. Dini niŋ ka UNESCO bɔri yulibu plaŋ ni be ti cultural mini natural sites, buɣisibu nim pam nyɛla din gbaa. Dihitabili ni be ni be ni be zaŋ shɛli n-nyɛ smart, sustainable membrane. Di nyɛla bini mali shɛli ni di yɛla din yira yaɣali ŋɔ vɛntileshin, energy, ni kom. Lala plaŋ ŋɔ gbaa-mi ni di mɛ dome-shaped smart membrane, din yɛn tiri yaɣali ŋɔ pɔhim maŋli din saɣi (ka maa dini saɣiti ni world heritage yaɣali kam mala). Lala smart-membrane dome lahi nyɛla din ni bo self-sustainable energy supply din ni yina din solar cells din be dome kpaŋi la. Lala membrane ŋɔ nyɛla bini lahi yɛn mali shɛli ka di mali filtration system din yɛn yihiri mahigibu pɔhim zuɣu ka di nyɛla din yihiri kom dini din yɛn chɛ ka yaɣali maa be vɛnyelinga.[6]

Gallery[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

See also[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]


Further reading[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

  • O'Brien, Harriet (June 18, 2006). "The World's Most Remarkable Buildings Under Threat". The Independent. https://www.independent.co.uk/travel/news-and-advice/the-worlds-most-remarkable-buildings-underthreat-404572.html.
  • ICOMOS Heritage at Risk 2001/2002
  • Weitzmann, Kurt, ed., Age of spirituality: late antique and early Christian art, third to seventh century, no. 591, 1979, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, ISBN 9780870991790

External links[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

  • Abu Mena at UNESCO World Heritage Centre; includes links to 360˚ panoramic photos of the site

Kundivihira[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

  1. Abu Mena UNESCO World Heritage Centre. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
  2. Room, Adrian (2008). Gbansabila biɛhisi shɛɛ yuya : Naawuni binnamda ni yi luɣ'shɛlina ni di yuya gbunni,fɔŋdi,foŋkara nti panic tingbana pɔhimzuɣ taŋgalimihi ni gbaa shɛŋa Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co. ISBN 978-0-7864-3546-3.
  3. Grossmann, Peter (1998). "The Pilgrimage Center of Abû Mînâ". in D. Frankfurter (ed.), Pilgrimage & Holy Space in Late Antique Egypt. Leiden-Boston-Köln, Brill: p. 282
  4. Talbot, Alice-Mary (2002). "Pilgrimage to Healing Shrines: The Evidence of Miracle Accounts". Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University. 56:153–173. doi: 10.2307/1291860. JSTOR 1291860.
  5. Armstrong, Gregory T. (1967). "Constantine's Churches". Gesta. International Center of Medieval Art. 6: 1–9. doi:10.2307/766661. JSTOR 766661. S2CID 191762441.
  6. Anderson, William. An Archaeology of Late Antique Pilgrim Flasks, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 54, (2004), pp. 79–93, British Institute at Ankara.
  7. Bagnall, Roger S. (2001). "Archaeological Work on Hellenistic and Roman Egypt, 1995–2000" American Journal of Archaeology. Archaeological Institute of America. 105 (2): 227–243 doi:10.2307/507272. JSTOR 507272. S2CID 194049544
  8. Weitzmann, Kurt (1977). "The Late Roman World". The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 35 (2): 2–96. doi:10.2307/3259887f. JSTOR 3259887
  9. Wilber, Donald N. (1940). "The Coptic Frescoes of Saint Menas at Medinet Habu". The Art Bulletin. College Art Association. 22 (2): 86–103 doi:10.2307/3046689 JSTOR 3046689
  10. "Abu Mena: Indicators" UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 2017-09-17.
  11. Abu Mena (Threats to the Site 2001)" UNESCO. UNESCO. Retrieved October 30, 2018.
  12. Ramadan, Ragab. "Funding issues threaten preservation of Christian sanctuary" Egypt Independent. Al-Masry Al-Youm. Retrieved October 30, 2018.
  13. "Abu Mena(Egypt)" UNESCO. UNESCO. Retrieved October 30, 2018.
  14. "Smart Sustainable Membrane for Historical Sites Conservation, Case Study: Abu Mena, Alexandria" ResearchGate. Retrieved 2018-12-08.
  1. "Abu Mena", Wikipedia (in English), 2022-11-27, retrieved 2022-12-07
  2. "Abu Mena", Wikipedia (in English), 2022-11-27, retrieved 2022-12-08
  3. "Abu Mena", Wikipedia (in English), 2022-11-27, retrieved 2022-12-08
  4. "Abu Mena", Wikipedia (in English), 2022-11-27, retrieved 2022-12-08
  5. "Abu Mena", Wikipedia (in English), 2022-11-27, retrieved 2022-12-08
  6. "Abu Mena", Wikipedia (in English), 2022-11-27, retrieved 2022-12-08