Timbuktu

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Timbuktu
Timbuktu Mosque Sankore.jpg
city, urban area
Yu'maŋliTombouctou, تمبكتو Mali niŋ
Zuliya wuhibuTombouctou, تمبكتو Mali niŋ
TiŋaMali Mali niŋ
Capital ofAzawad Mali niŋ
Din be shɛli polonaTimbuktu Region Mali niŋ
Tiŋgbaŋ yaɣili calinli16°46′24″N 2°59′58″W Mali niŋ
Wakati luɣiliUTC±00:00 Mali niŋ
Significant eventlist of World Heritage in Danger Mali niŋ
Heritage designationUNESCO World Heritage Site Mali niŋ
World Heritage soliWorld Heritage selection criterion (ii), World Heritage selection criterion (iv), World Heritage selection criterion (v) Mali niŋ
Category for mapsCategory:Maps of Timbuktu Mali niŋ
Map

Timbuktu nyɛla tiŋ din be Mali, din mini Niger Moɣili nyɛ maali pinaayi. Tiŋ maa n-nyɛ Tombouctou Region tiŋzuɣu, Mali yaɣa anii maa zaɣ'yini. Di daa malila niriba 54,453 saha shɛli yuuni 2009 kalinli ni daa niŋ la.

Timbuktu daa nyɛla luɣi shɛli niribi ni ʒiini saha saha hali ti lee luɣi shɛli niribi ni pa ʒiya 12th century ni. Di ni daa niŋ ka daabiligu soya taɣi, di ni n-nyɛ Mansa Musah ni daa kaa tiŋ maa yuuni 1325 saha, Timbuktu daa lɛbigiya yɛlim, salima, wɔbu nyini, ni daba daabilim ni. Di daa yɛligimi leegi musulinsi tiŋ gahindili Saharan daabilim yaɣili ka daa kpɛhi daabihi ni karimbihi kore, ka be kpiɣi napoŋ chaŋ tiŋ maa ni. Di daa leegi din be Mali tingbani ni 14th century ni. 15th century pirigili ni, Tuareg niribi daa nyɛla ban deei tiŋ maa sulinsi saha bihi, hali ka Songhai Empire maa daa ti dee li yuuni 1468. Morocco sojanima daa nyɛla ban ŋmɛn di Songhai yuuni 1591 ka daa zaŋ Timbuktu, lee be tiŋ zuɣu ka che Gao. Tobu tuhiribi maa daa nyɛla ban zali zalkpana so palli, dini n- nyɛ the Arma, din daa pa dee maŋsulinsi ka che Morocco yuuni 1612. Yuun pihinu tiŋ maa ni daa, nyɛ tiŋ gahindili zaŋti baŋsim bohimbu ni Mali Empire kali shee daa zani tariga, ka tiŋ maa daa labi nyaanŋa yuun gbaliŋ. Bala koŋkoba daa nyɛla ban dee tiŋ maa sulinsi hali ka French nim daa ti dee li yuuni 1893, din daa niŋ hali ka di daa ti pa pahi Republic of Mali yuuni 1960 ni.

Di yuun'pihinu ni, tiŋ maa afanima, daabihi ni karinzoŋ kara kamani Sankore Madrasah, din daa nyɛ musilinsi karinzoŋ karili daa soŋ kundunima daabilim, ka Timbuktu daa lee baŋsim bohimbu shee Africa zaa.

Toponymy[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Timbuktu looking west, René Caillié (1830)

Taarihi sasabiri gahinda kamani Shabeni ni Leo Africanus daa sabi zaŋ kpa tiŋa maa polo. Lala sabbu nima maa daa tahi yɛltɔɣa na Europe, ka tiŋa maa yudua daa yi tiŋ' shɛli arizichi ni beni n-labi tiŋ' shɛli tom ni be.

Poi Ka Taarihi naan yi Sabi[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

View of Timbuktu, French Sudan

Tiŋ gahinda kamani Djennè, Gao ni Dia niribi ʒii saha waɣila din gari nyɛla dini nya shɛli Timbuktu yaɣili poi ka tiŋ maa daa ti zali.

Di bahi bahindi tankpaɣu laɣim doni ka pobi tiŋ maa yaɣi shɛŋa, luɣi shɛŋa din koɣili nyɛla din wuhiri mɛbu di zuɣu.[1][2] Susan mini Roderick McIntosh ni daa zahim tiŋ maa yuuni 1984, di daa wuhi saha waɣila shɛhi din doli el- Ahmar, saha waɣili ko soli din gari chaŋ tiŋ palli maa ni.[3]

Saha waɣila luɣi shɛli din daa be maali anu ni pirigili Timbuktu nudirigu wulinpuhili yaɣili, dinmiri el-Ahmar daa nyɛla niribi ban vihiri tingbani zuɣu, ka yi Yale University ni Mission Culturelle de Tombouctuo ni yaa shɛli yuuni 2008 ni 2010 sunsuni. Vihigu maa daa wuhiya ni niribi daa nyɛla ban be lala luɣili maa 5th century BC, hali ni 1st millenium AD ka daa ti zani dabari saha kamani 10th century bahigu bee 11th century piligu AD.[4][5]

Taarihi[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Tɛmplet:Main Tɛmplet:Summarize

View of Timbuktu, French Sudan

Timbuktu daa nyɛla daabilim sheei saha waɣila, luɣi shɛli daabihi ni daa laɣindi taɣiri yɛlim din yi Sahara Dessert ni deeri salima, wobu nyina ni daba din yi Sahel na, bini daa doli Niger Moɣili chani shɛli.

Tiŋ maa niribi daa yɛligimi chaŋ 32,460 di daa nyɛla niribi 10,000 13th century ni, nti chaŋ niribi 50,000 16th century ni saha shɛli dini daa zali karinzoŋ karili Islamic University ( University of Timbuktu), din daa kpɛhi musulinsi karimbihi anduniya yaangi zuɣu kore.

Morocco nim daa nyɛla ban ŋme nkpe Songhai Empire yuuni 1590, yuuni 1591 Tondibi tobu ( Battle of Tondibi) maa nyaanŋa Morocco nim maa da nyɛla ban ʒini Tumbuktu. Yuuni 1593, karinzoŋ kara maa toondaanbi daa nyɛla dini yihi ka ku shɛba ka daliri nyɛmi ni bi daa bi doli tiŋ maa toondaan palibi maa ni yɛlimaŋli, ŋo lo ŋo nti pahi daabilim nyaangi labbu daa che ka tiŋ maa labi nyaaŋa.

Gban piɛlli ŋun daa paa Timbuktu tuuli, Alexander Gordon Laing daa paala yuuni 1826, yuuni 1890 ni ka Timbuktu daa pa kpe French colony of Mali ni. Hali woyyo, niribi na nyɛla ban be tiŋ maa ni, amaa di dii bilahi be ka dini daa be shɛm daabilim ni karimbu polo.

jograafi[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

A camel ride in the Sahara desert, outside Timbuktu

Timbuktu nyɛla din be southern sahara yaɣili kamani 15 km (9+1⁄2 mi) north m-ba daansi ni River Niger kuli no' titali la, tiŋbani ŋɔ nyɛla din mali bihigu pam ka tiŋgbani maa luɣili kam kuli nyɛla bihigu. kabara pootu la nyɛla din nyɛ 8 km (5 mi) zaŋ chaŋ south din mini kulibɔŋ ŋɔ noli naai taba kamani 3 km (2 mi) kanal. lala kanal daa nyɛla din yiɣisi yaa pam amaa yuuni 2007 bi daa zaŋ ŋa pahi libiyan finance project.[6]

Yuuni kam River Niger gamo ŋɔ yirila samiri biɛɣu ni na headwaters of the Niger and Bani rivers in Guinea and northern Ivory Coast. saa mibu lala yaɣa ŋo too piligiri la August amaa ka di kom zorim ŋɔ din lee maa di ni doli ko' soya hali nti yi Niger Delta tiŋ puuni. koulikoro,60 km (37 mi) zaŋ shee Bamako, ko' kpeɣu ŋɔ piinila September[7], amaa Timbuktu ŋuni puuni ko' kpeɣu ŋɔ ni tooi biɛni hali ni December[8]

Saha din gari maa, yaɣ'shɛli moɣili kom maa ni daa kpʋri maa daa nyɛla din galisi pam, ka yuun shɛŋa saa ni daa kuli miri pam, ko kpɛɣu ŋo daa nyɛla din paari tiŋ shɛŋa din be Timbuktu wulinluhil yaɣili.[9]Tiŋ maa wulinluhili yaɣili nyɛla binshɛli din be mappishɛŋa ni Heinrich Barth[10] ni zaŋ wuhi salo yuuni 1867 ka Fèlix Dubois [11]gba daa zaŋ o dini wuhi salo yuuni 1896 ni. Yuuni 1917 ni yuuni 1921 sunsuuni, colonial saha maa, French nima daa nyɛla ban che ka daba gbi kosoli din daa zaŋ Timbuktu tuɣi Kabara.[12] Yuma din daa pahi , kosoli maa daa nyɛla din ŋari ka tankpaɣu kuli kpe mbe dini, amaa yuuni 2007 ni, kosoli maa daa nyɛla bini labi mali shɛlu, di saha di yi niŋ ka Niger moɣili maa chee, Timbuktu nyɛla din mini Kabara tuɣ'taba.[13][14]Mali gomnantu nyɛla ŋun lo alikawli ni o ni lihi ko solu maa malibu yɛlmuɣisira maa zuɣu, dama kosoli ŋo nyɛla din ka kodoliko nima ni din pahi.[15]

Kabara nyɛla din ni too kuli nyɛ luɣ'shɛli ŋarima ni ʒiri nɛma kpɛri ka yira silimin goli December hali ni January di yi ti niŋ ka moɣili maa kuli nyɛ din kpe kom pam. Kom maa yi ti boogi, ŋarima maa nyɛla din ʒiri ka yihiri nɛma Korioumè din nyɛ palli din waɣilim nyɛ 18km( 11mi ) nyɛ din be di mini Timbuktu sunsuuni.

Climate/Tiŋgbani tulim mini maasim[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Timbuktu bela bopiɛligu ni (BWh) Köppen Climate Classification ni wuhi shɛm. Di tiŋgbani tuli pam ka kuui yuuni kam ni, tiŋsi pam saa miri la June ni September sunsuuni, ka dI nyɛ Intertropical Convergence Zone ( ITCZ) maa n kuli tahili.Tiŋ maa biisim walibu asiba ni yuŋ nyɛla din galisi pam kikaa saha n gari saa saha. Dabisili biisim ni ni too paa shɛli goli shɛŋa din zoogi ka di tuli pam- April,May ni june- nyɛla din gari 40°C ( 104°F). Biisim din kuli do tiŋ pam nyɛla din niŋdi yuuni puuni silimin goli - December, January ni February. To amaa, tiŋ maa biisim nyɛla din bi chani 30°C (86°F) gbinni. Pohim saha nyɛla din mali tabkpagbiligu ka di ʒeeri yirina Saharan Tibesti yaɣili Gulf of Guinea nudirigu zuɣu; lala pohim ŋo nyɛla din che ka niribi bi too lahi nyɛra ka di zuɣu che ka bi booni li '' Harmatan Haze''.[16] Di yi ti niŋ ka tankpagbulihu maa lu tiŋ maa ni, tankpaɣu kuli nyɛla din laɣisiri doona.[17]

Climate data for Timbuktu (1950–2000, extremes 1897–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 41.6
(106.9)
43.5
(110.3)
46.1
(115.0)
48.9
(120.0)
49.0
(120.2)
49.0
(120.2)
46.0
(114.8)
46.5
(115.7)
45.0
(113.0)
48.0
(118.4)
42.5
(108.5)
40.0
(104.0)
49.0
(120.2)
Average high °C (°F) 30.0
(86.0)
33.2
(91.8)
36.6
(97.9)
40.0
(104.0)
42.2
(108.0)
41.6
(106.9)
38.5
(101.3)
36.5
(97.7)
38.3
(100.9)
39.1
(102.4)
35.2
(95.4)
30.4
(86.7)
36.8
(98.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 21.5
(70.7)
24.2
(75.6)
27.6
(81.7)
31.3
(88.3)
34.1
(93.4)
34.5
(94.1)
32.2
(90.0)
30.7
(87.3)
31.6
(88.9)
30.9
(87.6)
26.5
(79.7)
22.0
(71.6)
28.9
(84.0)
Average low °C (°F) 13.0
(55.4)
15.2
(59.4)
18.5
(65.3)
22.5
(72.5)
26.0
(78.8)
27.3
(81.1)
25.8
(78.4)
24.8
(76.6)
24.8
(76.6)
22.7
(72.9)
17.7
(63.9)
13.5
(56.3)
21.0
(69.8)
Record low °C (°F) 1.7
(35.1)
7.5
(45.5)
7.0
(44.6)
8.0
(46.4)
18.5
(65.3)
17.4
(63.3)
18.0
(64.4)
20.0
(68.0)
18.9
(66.0)
13.0
(55.4)
11.0
(51.8)
3.5
(38.3)
1.7
(35.1)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.6
(0.02)
0.1
(0.00)
0.1
(0.00)
1.0
(0.04)
4.0
(0.16)
16.4
(0.65)
53.5
(2.11)
73.6
(2.90)
29.4
(1.16)
3.8
(0.15)
0.1
(0.00)
0.2
(0.01)
182.8
(7.20)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.6 0.9 3.2 6.6 8.1 4.7 0.8 0.0 0.1 25.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 263.9 249.6 269.9 254.6 275.3 234.7 248.6 255.3 248.9 273.0 274.0 258.7 3,106.5
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization,[18] NOAA (sun 1961–1990)[19]
Source 2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[20]

Tigbani biɛhigu[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Daabilim[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Azalai salt caravan, mid-December 1985.

Yɛlim Daabiligu[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Arizichi din daa be Timbuktu daa jɛndila luɣi shɛli dini be ; pumpoŋo binyɛri shɛŋa dini mali yaɣiri desert n- nyɛ yɛlim kuɣa shɛlu dini nya Taoudenni din be Sahaara yiŋa ka di mini Timbultu nyɛ maali 413 di nuzaa zuɣu. Yɛlim maa pam daa nyɛla laakumi ni ʒiri shɛli yiri Timbuktu November ka yini gba yiri March goli ni.[21]

Laakum tuha maa daa nyɛla din niŋdi bakoi dibaa ata soli ni, n ʒiri bindira ti tiri ban gbiri yɛlim maa ka laakumi kam labi ni 30kg yɛlim dibaa anahi bee anu.Yɛlim maa ʒibu maa daa nyɛla Barabish nim ni lihiri di zuɣu. [22]Di bahi bahindi pala lahi kani, yɛlim kuɣa maa pa nyɛla dini zaŋdi lora kara ʒiri yiri Taoudenni.[23]

Yalim maa dolila ŋariŋ yiri Timbuktu n chani tiŋsi din be Mali.

12th and 14th century sunsuni, Timbuktu niribi daa nyɛla din zoohi pam di bahi bahindi Bono, Tuaregs, Funalis ni Songhais daa nyɛla ban kpe tiŋ maa ni ni bi ti niŋ daabiligu, n- bo gubu bee ni bi ti bo baŋsim. Di daa ti yɛn paagi yuuni 1300, niribi10,00 daa pahi niribi maa zuɣu ka daa kuli pahiri hali ti paagi 50,000 yuuni 1500s ni.[24]

Pukparilim[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Saa di bi zoogi ka di miri Timbuktu, dizuɣu binbila din bori saa nyɛla bini vori kom River Niger ni yoɣirili. Binbili shɛli bini zoogi la bi kori n- nyɛ shinkaafa. African floating rice ( oryza glaberrima) nyɛla shɛlu dini kori ko nangbaŋ kpansi. Bi biritilimi di yi ti niŋ ka saa pili ( June- July) din nyɛn che ka moɣili maa kom yi ti cheegi binbila maa nyɛla din yɛn zoogi kamani 12 ni 16 inches.[25]

Binbila maa nyɛla din zoori paari 3 metres waɣilim kom maa yi dura. Di zaŋdila ŋariŋ di yi ti niŋ ka di yɛn che shinkaafa maa December goli ni. Bini koti nyɛri shɛlu bi galisi to amaa di bi bori laɣiri pam di yi niŋ ka niri yɛn ko.

Binbila viɛmyɛla niŋbu dolila saa mibu saha ni sakom galisim. Ko kpɛli maa nyɛla dini ni too gu shɛli di yi niŋ ka bi niŋ yaɣiri.

Di mini dini kori floating rice maa yoli, shinkaafa maa pam pa nyɛla dini zoori shɛli bahi dibaa ata ni din do tiŋ maa nudirigu : Daye ( 392 ha), Koriomè ( 550 ha ) ni Hamadja ( 623 ha ). Kom nyɛla dini vori shɛli moɣili maa ni ka zaŋdi Archimede's screws shɛŋa dini daa kpɛhi yuuni 1990s ni. Bahi maa nyɛla daŋ 2,100 ni laɣim kora poli bihi.[26] Bindiri shɛli dini nyɛri maa nyɛla shɛli bini diri bi toli. Bi konkpiɣi nyɛla din na kuli bi galisi ka di kpamdi pukaribi maa jaande ni bi taɣi bi koli soya.[27]

Ninliha[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Niribi daa nyɛla ban chɛni Timbuktu November ni February goli sunsuni di yi ti niŋ ka pohim bala. Yuuni 1980s luɣi shɛli ban gori ni daa gbɛra daa nyɛla Hendrina Khan Hotel [28]ni hotel bihi a yi : Hotel Bouctou ni Hotel Azalai ni tiri shɛli. Lala yuma maa ban gori chani tiŋ maa ni kalinli daa nyɛla din pahi hali ka yuuni 2006 hotel bihi dibaa ayobu ni dugbɛra daa bɛni.[29] Tiŋ maa daa nyɛla din nyɛ laɣiri CFA 5000 ban gori sani,[30] kohimma ni ninvuɣ'shɛba ban zaŋdi niribi ginda bi yi go n chaŋ tiŋ maa ni.

Liribu[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Din daa pili yuuni 2008, al-Qaeda ban be Islamic Maghreb daa nyɛla ban pili niribi baan chaŋ ninliha lihibu gbahibu Sahel yaɣili maa.[31]Silimin goli January yuuni 2009, niribi ban daa chaŋ ninliha yulibu ka bi kalinli nyɛ dibaanahi daa nyɛla dini gbahi shɛba zaŋ miri Mali-Niger Border dini daa niŋ ka bi chaŋ ti lihi kali chuɣu Anderamboukanè.[32] Lala bini daa gbahi shɛbi ŋo yini daa nyɛla dini ku so. Lala ŋo zuɣu ni yɛltoɣ'shɛŋa din pahi tinsi pam kamani France,[33] Britain[34] ni US[35] daa nyɛla ban kuli saɣisiri bi ya nima ni bi miri ka bi gori chani Bamako. Baan daa chani timbuktu ti lihiri nimliha ŋo kalinlidaa nyɛla din kuli boogu pam di daa nyɛla kalinli 6000 yuuni 2009 ka daa siɣi labi 492 tuuli goya anahi yuuni 2011 ni.[36]

Lala yɛltoɣa nim ŋo zuɣu, Mali gomnanti daa nyɛla din

daa zaŋ yuuni 2010 chuɣu Desert maani n kpuɣili yi Essakane n tahi Timbuktu tinkoɣa.[37] [38]Silimin goli November yuuni 2011, nachimbi ban gbibi marifanima daa nyɛla ban liri niribi ban daa chaŋ ninliha lihibu ka daa be saambiduu Timbuktu, ninvuɣ'yino daa nyɛla dini di o nyavili ka gbahi niribi ata.[39] [38]Ŋoloŋo n daa nyɛ tuuli ka ninvuɣ'biɛri liri niriba Timbuktu tiŋpuuni maŋmaŋa.

Silimin goli 1 April yuuni 2012, dabisi yini ni daa pa dabisi shɛli dini daa ŋme ndeegi Gao, Timbuktu daa nyɛla dini ŋme n dee shɛli Mali sojanima sani ka di nyɛ Tuareg bibiɛhi ban be MNLA ni Ansar Dine tuma n daa bala.[40]Dabaa nu nyaaŋa, MNLA daa nyɛla ban yina ti yɛlini tiŋ maa lahi pa din nyɛ Mali tingbani ni di pa nyala Azawad tingbani. [41]Lala lahibali ŋo daa nyɛla tinsi ban be mali yaɣili maa ni tinduya ni daa bi saɣiti shɛli ka du daa lu chira ata nyaaŋa silimin gopi July 12.[42]

Silimin goli 28 January yuuni 2013, French ni Mali gomnanti soojanima daa nyɛla ban pili Timbuktu deebu bibiɛhi ŋo sani.[43] Bi daa nyɛla french soojanima ban kalinli nyɛ 1,000 ni Mali soojanima ban kalinli nyɛ 200 n daa nyɛla ban deegi Timbuktu ka zabli ka dini.Musulinnima bibiɛhi ŋo nyɛla ban daa pun yi ka che tiŋ maa dini daa niŋ ka bi niŋ buɣim dabi Ahmed Baba Institute, luɣi shɛlu din daa mali tiŋ maa kundu gahinda. Ahmed Baaba Institute ŋo mɛbu daa nyɛla South Africa ni ku arizichi niŋ shɛli ni ka di daa mali gbana din kalinli paagi 30,000.

BBC World Service radio lahibali daa nyɛla din yini wuhi silimin goli 29 January yuuni 2013 ni ;ni gbana din kalinli daa paagi 28,000 din daa be tuma du zuɣu ŋo daa nyɛla dini daa kuli yi shɛli ti soɣi poi ka bibiɛhi ŋo daa naa yi liriba, ka lahi yɛli ni gbana din kalinli daa nyɛ 2,000 nyɛla dini bi mi luɣi shɛli dini be.[44] Di daa nyɛla shɛli din yɛn nyɛ luɣi shɛli din yɛn tiri niribi lahibali di yi ti yɛn niŋ musulinsi vihigu.[45]

Dabisili din daa pahi pihita silimin goli Marcg yuuni 2013, jihadi bibiɛhi daa nyɛla ban kpe Timbuktu dabaa awou poi ka di daa naan yi bombi Mali soojanima lihibu shee tiŋ maa yiɣibu shee, din daa ku sooja yino. Zabili daa nyɛla din kuli niŋ hali ni silimin goli 1 April dini daa niŋ ka french tobu alapileenima daa soŋ Mali soojanima ka bi daa kari bibiɛhi ban daa kpalim maa yihi tiŋ maa ni.

Toponomi[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Saha din gari ha, timbuktu sabbu daa kuli nyɛla din wali pam : din gbaagi Tenbuch Catalan Atlas ni ( yuuni 1375), ni sogora ŋun yuli daa nyɛ Antonio Malfante's gba nyɛ ŋun daa sabili Thambet gbaŋ shɛli o ni daa sabi yuuni 1447 ka Alvise Cadamosto gba daa nyɛ ŋun kpiɣili niŋ o Voyages of Cadamosto, Heinrich Barth's gba daa nyɛla ŋun sabili Timbùktu ni Timbu'ktu. French nim sabbu gba nyɛla din yirina kunduvihirani ka nyɛ 'Tombouctou'.

German sabbu ' Timbuktu' ni di balibu 'Timbucktu' nyɛla dini saɣiti ka zaŋdi shɛlu sabiri siliminsili ka siliminsili ŋo nyɛ din pa zoogi ka bi sabiri shɛli. Siliminsili sabbu pam nyɛla din kpiɣi sabbu 'Timbuctoo' ka di nyɛ baŋsimnima ni saɣiti shɛli ni dini nyɛ siliminsili yɛlimaŋli; 'Timbuctuo' ni 'Timbuctu' nyɛla dini lahi sabiri shɛli saha shɛŋa. French nim nyɛla ban na kuli zoogi ka bi sabiri 'Tombouctou' kamani bini daa kuli sabiri li shɛm saha waɣila din gari; di sabbu balibu n nyɛ 'Temboctou' ni 'Tombouktou' amaa di nyɛla dini zoogi ka bi bi nyɛri shɛli. Sabbu balibu nyɛla din bɛni ti luɣi shɛŋa yaha, kamani Jenne( Djennè) ni Segu ( Sègou).[46] Timbuktu sabbu nyɛla ni sabbu maa ni yi shɛli na, na nyɛla dini na tooku gbaagi shaawara zaŋ kpa shɛli polo. Timbuktu sabbu ni yina shɛli dibaa anahi nyɛla dini buɣisi shɛli: Din yina Songhay: Leo Africanus ni Heinrich Barth nyɛla ban dihi tabili ni yuli maa daa nyɛla dini nyɛ shɛli Songhay yɛltoɣa di baa ayi ni: Leo Africanus sabiya wuhi ni Tombuto tingbani daa nyɛla dini zaŋ tiŋ shɛli yuli tili, ka di nyɛ Mansa Suleyman ni daa nyɛ shɛli yuuni 1213 bee yuuni 1214.[47] Yɛltoɣili maa maŋmaŋ nyɛla din pu buyi zuɣu: tin( gooni) ni butu( butu gooni). Africanus daa bi yɛli Butu maa gbinni. Heinrich Barth daa nyɛla ŋun sabi: " Di daa niŋ ka bi booni tiŋ maa lala yuli ŋo dama di daa nyɛla dini daa tuu mɛ shɛli voli bee boɣiloɣu din be kunkuna ni. Túmbutu gbinni nyɛla voli bee saɣinga Songhay balli puuni: di yi daa yɛn nyɛ Temàshight( Tamashek) yɛltoɣili, di daa yɛn nyɛla dini sabi shɛli Timnuktu. Yuli maa nyɛla Europenima gba ni kuli lɛbigi shɛli ka di gbinni nyɛ Buktu kobiliga( lala yɛltoɣili ŋo Persian ni nyɛla bâkhtaàr; luɣi shɛli wulingi ni lura, wulinluhili) amaa tin maa nyɛla din mini kobiligi bi kpini taba.

Din yi Berber na: Mali taarihi baŋda ŋun yuli nyɛ Sekene Cussoko daa nyɛla ŋun yɛli ni di yila shɛli polo dabam na: Tuaregnima ban daa nya tiŋ maa daa nyɛla ban tilu Berbwe yuli, yɛltoɣili din mali pubu bu yi : tim, din nyɛ luɣili paɣibi dini ni bouctou,tankpaɣu din du zaɣibila. Di saha Timbuktu gbinni yɛn nyɛla " luɣshɛli taŋkpaduya ni mɛ gili".

Abd al- Sadi daa nyɛla ŋun lahi baŋsi niriba o 17th century Tarish al-Sudan ni. " Tuaregnima daa nyɛla ban bo shɛli polo n zaŋdi bi nɛma ni bindira soŋda, ka di daa nyɛ din lɛbigi leegi pali chira zaŋti niribi ban gora. Ŋun daa lihiri nɛma ŋo n daa nyɛ bi dabi paɣa ŋun yuli daa booni Timbuktu, ka bi balli ni di gbnni daa nyɛ [ niri ŋun mali ] puɣili. Luɣi shɛli o ni daa be nyɛla dini daa zaŋ o yuli ti shɛli".

French Orientalist ŋun yuli daa nyɛ Renè Basset daa nyɛla ŋun gba zaŋ o dini chaŋ : yuli maa daa nyɛla dini nyɛ shɛli tia dun yuli booni Zenaga wulli b-k-t, din gbinni nyɛ " din be katiŋa" bee " din soɣi ni tin din nyɛ paɣibu malibu dini. Di gbinni " din soɣi " daa nyɛla din wuhiri tiŋ maa ni be luɣi shɛli.

Lala taarihinima ŋo yɛlimaŋtali dolila ban daa kuli tuugi nya tiŋ maa: yuuni 2000,ban vihiri tingbani na bi nya binsɛŋa din guui 11/12th century ni din be tiŋ maa ni dama di daabu ni bi yihi tankpaɣu din pili binyɛra din daa kpalim maa nyɛla din yɛn to.Dini niŋ ka laɣim gbaagi kani maa Timbuktu sabbu, dini yi luɣi shɛli na na nyɛla din bi neegi.

Ninvuɣu Gahinda[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

  • Ahmad Baba al-Timbukti (1556–1627), ŋun daa nyɛ Sanhaja Berber sasabira, baŋda ni jintora.
  • Abdul Rahman Ibrahima Sori (1762—1829) ŋun daa nyɛ nabia ni Amir, bini daa gbaagi so ka daa koho n ti daba daabihi ka bi daa zaŋo chaŋ United States yuuni 1788 ni.
  • Mahamane Haidara (1910-1981) jintori so bini daa piigi niŋ nam ni French Senate yuuni 1948.
  • Souheil Ben-Barka (born 1942) ŋun nyɛ ŋun daa yi Morocco na ka lihiri ka kpɛrigu bee sinii chani viɛnyɛla, ka sabiri kpɛrigu.
  • Cissé Mariam Kaïdama Sidibé (1948–2021) Mali jintora, ŋun daa nyɛ tuuli paɣa ka bi piigi prime minister Mali tingbani ni.
  • Alphadi (born 1957) ŋun daa yi Nigeria na ka nyɛ dini kuli mi so ka o shɛri nɛma a bi daa boono a "Desert ni Shihiralana".

Kali[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Kali laɣinsi[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Kali binshɛli dini mi n- nyɛ Festival au Dèsert. [48]Tuareg nim ni daa ŋmɛ tiŋ maa naa yuuni 1996, Konarè sulinsi ni, tobu nɛma 3,000 daa nyɛla dini dab shɛli ka bolli Flame of Peace silimin goli 29 March 2007 - ni di wuhi suhupiɛlli, lala ŋo zuɣu bi daa mɛla yaɣiri ni di zani wuhi.[49] Festival au Dèsert daa nyɛla shɛli dini niŋdi diri suhudoo, dini daa diri li January kam yaɣi shɛli din nyɛ 75 km ka che tiŋmaa hali ni yuuni 2010.[48]

Moolidi chuɣu maa nyɛla shɛli dini diri bakoi Januady ni, la di nyɛla Muhammed, doɣim dabisili chuɣu ka di diri maa. Adiini kundunima nyɛla dini karindi shɛli palo ni ka nyɛ lala chuɣu ŋo bin gahindili shɛli dini niŋda.[50]Di daa na nyɛla Shi'ite chuɣu din yi Persia na ka daa paagi Timbuktu yuuni 16000 saha. Dini n- nyɛ suhupiɛlli chuɣu churi zaa ni Timbukt, di nyɛla din laɣindi musilinsi sufi mini Timbuktu kaya ni ta aada.[51] Di nyɛla saha shɛli dini diri ka nyira, yila yilibu, ni wahi wabu. Di bahigu niŋbu nyɛla di laɣindila niriba tuha yuŋ, bihigu zuɣu din be Sankor è Mosque ka karim tiŋ maa kundu shɛŋa nin tiɣili ni be dini palo ni.[51]

Duniya nɛma tiɛri[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Di laɣingu din daa pahi pinaayi, silimin goli December yuuni 1988, World Heritage Committee (WHC) daa nyɛla ban piigi Timbuktu taarihi yaɣi shɛŋa ni di zaŋ pahi World Heritage list ni. Piibu daa nyɛla din doli soya ata:

. Criterion II: Timbuktu jɛma shee daa nyɛla din niŋ talahi Africa musulinsi ni.

. Criterion IV: Timbuktu jiŋa daa nyɛla din wuhiri kali ni baŋsim Goldeb Age, Songhai Empire la saha.

.Criterion V: Jiŋa maa mɛbu, daa nyɛla din wuhiri saha kurili mɛbu soya.

Tuuli piibu yuuni 1979 daa nyɛla din bi niŋ tabata yuuni shɛli din daa pa di zuɣu dama di daa bi zahim tiŋ maa viɛnyɛla: [52]Mali gomnanti daa nyɛla ŋun kuli zaŋ Timbuktu tiŋ maa zaa ni di zaŋ pahi. [53]Kamani yun pii nyaaŋa, jiŋa ata ni maysoleums pinaayobu bee gbala daa nyɛla dini piigi shɛli tiŋ kurili maa ni, ni di zaŋdi ka di za World Heritage zaashee: lala ŋo daa nyɛla din wuhi ni di gu ka taɣi mɛbu mɛbu maa, ni di yihi mɛri pala din miri nimaani, ka lahi guli ka che tankpaɣu.

Saha bihi nyaaŋa, lala mɛbɛ ŋo daa nyɛla Mali gomnanti ni daa pa zaŋli niŋ List of World Heritage in Danger ni.[54]Tuuli saha dini daa be barina gbaŋ maa ni daa nyɛla din pili yuuni 1990 hali ni yuuni 2005,dini daa kpiɣi soya ni di mali mali ni kula din pahi daa ti yina yɛlini diyihi li luɣu shɛŋa din be barina ni.[55]Yuuni 2008, WHC daa nyɛla ban zaŋ luɣi shɛli dini kuli gbibi viɛnyɛla ŋo ka daa kuli lihirili pam.[56]

Bi ʒi shɛli puuni silimin goli June yuuni 2009, UNESCO daa nyɛla ban gbaagi ni bi che bi lihigu maa ka dama bi daa nyami ka di kuli chaŋ tooni viɛnyɛla n daa mali di yɛlimuɣisira maa. Dini daa niŋ ka MNLA ni musulinsi niriba Ansar Dine daa deegi Timbuktu, di daa nyɛla dini labisi shɛli niŋ World Heritage in Danger yuuni 2012 ni.[57]

Musilinisi laɣingu ni daa liri[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Solimin goli May yuuni 2012, Ansar Dine daa nyɛla ban saɣimbuɣili tiŋ maa ni, [58]ka silimin goli June yuuni 2012, Gao ni Timbuktu tobu maa nyaaŋa, buɣi shɛŋa, mausoleum of Sidi Mahmoud ni daa pahi shɛli ni daa nyɛla dini wrim shɛŋa, dini daa kuli niŋ ka bizaŋ soobiya ni kpana n che che shɛŋa.[57]ŋun yɛri tiri Ansar Dine daa yɛliya ni buɣa zaa din be tiŋ maa ni, ni buɣa pinaata din pahi World Heritage ni daa nyɛla dini yɛn wurim shɛli dama di bi nyami ka di nyɛ chafirisili, din nyɛ taali musulinsi ni.[59][57]Lala niŋbu nyɛla dini buɣisi shɛli ka di nyɛ niribi taali tumbu ni tobu taali. [60]Saɣimbu ŋo nyaaŋa,UNESCO daa nyɛla ban kpa poŋ ni di lihi Mali Wolrd Heritage Sites viɛnyɛla, ka daa nyɛ ban po ni bi yɛn labimi mɛli di yi niŋ ka tiŋ maa biɛhigu saɣi ti.[61]

Mɛbu Mɛbu[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Mali tingbani daa nyɛla din ka ziligi pala gbaa yihi Dakar-Niger ziliji palli hali ni Koulikoro, niri yi yɛn chaŋ Timbultu shee la palli,ŋarim be tum yuuni 1961 alapilee. [62]Dini daa niŋ ka kom kuli duri Niger silimin goli August zaŋ chaŋ December, Compagnie Malieenne de Navigation ( COMANAV) ŋarima daa nyɛla din chani so yini Kuolikoro ni Gao sunsuni bakoi kam. Din daa lahi bori kom pam daa nyɛla pinasses, dini daa kpiɣiri shɛli ka di chani duri ka sheeri kuligi maa ni.[63]

Ŋarima ni pinasses nim maa daa,nyɛla din paaru Korioumè, Timbuktu port, ka palli din waɣilim nyɛ kamani 18km( 11 mi) ka doli kabara n paari tiŋ maa tiŋpuni .Yuuni 2006, Timbultu port chandi daa nyɛla Libya ni soŋ si shɛli ka di labina, din daa mɛ ko soli 3km( 2mi) din daa zaŋdi Kabara tuɣiri Niger moɣili maa yaɣishɛli. COMNAV ferries ni piassinima pa nyɛla binshɛli din ni too paagi port maani di yi ti niŋ ka moɣili maa pali kom.[64][65]

Timbuktu pala din chɛni Mali nyɛla din bi viɛla ka pala maa kuli nyɛ tankpa ʒiɛli zan chani tiŋsi din koɣili maa. Di bahi bahindi Niger moɣili nyɛla dini ni too zaŋ ŋarum yaɣi shɛli, pala din be moɣili maa nudirigu zuɣu kuli bi viɛla. Amaa palli nyɛla dini na kuli mɛri shɛli Niono ni Timbuktu sunsuni din kuni Inland Niger Delta nuzaa zuɣu. Palli din waɣilim yɛn nyɛ 565 km ( 351 mi) nyɛla din yɛn doli Nampala, Lèrè, Niafunkè, Tonka, Dirè ni Goundam.[66][67] Bini na naagu 81km (50 mi) shɛli ŋo din be Niono tinkpaŋ bila din yuli booni Goma Coura daa nyɛla Millenium Challenge Corporation ni ku liɣiri niŋ shɛli ni.[68]Lala yaɣili ŋo yɛn soŋsula alatona kom bahibu soli din be Office du Niger sulinsi ni. [69]Yaɣili din waɣilim nyɛ 484km(301 mi) ka be Goma Coura ni Timbuktu sunsuni nyɛla European Development Fund ni kuri ariziki niŋdi shɛli ni.[66]

Timbuktu Alapilee yiɣibu shee daa nyɛla Air Mali ni tumdi shɛli, ka lihiri yiɣibu Bamako chandi nidu labbu na, Gao ni Mopti hali ka di daa ti na che tuma yuuni 2014.[63]Pumpoŋo alapilee yiɣibu shee maa nyɛla din ka niribi ban tumdu di tuma.Di 6,923 ft ( 2,110m) so shɛli alapilee ni yɛn doli ti yiɣi nyɛla din mali laati.[70]

Baŋsim bobu[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Baŋsim bobu jɛnda[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Timbuktu daa nyɛla duniya yili musulinsi baŋsim bohimbu shee din gbaabi 13th century hali na ni 17th century, di zaa baabaatu daa nyɛla dini daa be Mali Empire , Askia Mohmed I's sulinsi ni. Mali gomnanti ni jɛngama zuɣu laɣinsi nyɛla ban kuli tumdi ni bi laɣim ka labisi tiŋmaa baŋsim yuli na; Timbuktu manuscripts. [71]


Di ni daa niŋ ka daabilim yɛligi Timbuktu 13th and 14th century ni di daa nyɛla din vo karimbihi ni niribi ban bohindi baŋsim Walata ( din nyɛ Mauritania zuŋo), [72] din daa tahi suhidoo ni lɛbigimsim tiŋ maa ni 15th ni 16th centuries ka wuhi shahira ni baŋsim bobu, tabibi ni kaya ni zani di naba ayi zuɣu. Timbuktu niribi sani, baŋsim ni kundunima daa nyɛla lahima tiri arizichi, yaa ni laara ka kundunima nyɛbu bee bobu daa leegi binshɛli baŋsim boribi ni kpiɣi nimmohi.[73]Kundunima daabiligu Timbuktu ni musulinsi yaɣa din be duniya yaangi zuɣu ni Askia Mohammmed ni daa kuli za di nyaaŋa la zuɣu daa tahi kundu tuha sabbu na.[74]

Baŋsim daa nyɛla din laɣim ka ŋmani European Medieval university dini. Wuhibu daa nyɛla dini niŋdi shɛli Madrasah nim ni.[75] Ʒamama ŋo di milimi University of Timbuktu, madrasah dibaata daa nyɛla din wuhiri 25,000 karimbihi: Djinguererber, Sidi Yahya ni Sankore.[76]

Lala karinzona ŋo daa kuli nyɛla adiini dini. University nim ban be European sense ni daa pili nyɛ karimbanima ni karimbihi laɣingu, West- African baŋsim bobu daa nyɛla daŋ nim ni saɣi dee shɛli, ka Aqit ni Bunu al-Qadi al- Hajj daŋ daa nyɛ daŋshɛŋa niribi ni mi ka ti jilima pam Timbuktu- lala daŋnimmaa daa nyɛla ban wuhiri karimbihi du bihi ni bi yinsi.[77] Dini daa niŋ ka musulinsi zalisi ni di wuhibu daa nyɛla binshɛli dini zaŋ yi North Africa kana Timbuktu maa, musulinsi yɛligibu maa, Western African baŋsim bohimbu daa yɛligimi: Ahmad Baba al Massufi daa nyɛla tiŋmaa baŋdi kuɣinli.[78]

Timbuktu daa lahi nyɛla luɣi shɛli din zanti kundunima wuligibu. Di ni daa niŋ kaa daabiligu nyɛ binshɛli tiŋ maa ni kpiɣi zuɣusaa daa che ka baŋsim nima yiri tiŋ maa ni chɛni tiŋshɛŋa dini niŋdi daabilim. Yuuni 1468-1469 baŋdibi pam daa nyɛla ban yi n chaŋ Walata dini daa niŋ ka Sunni Ali's Songhay Empire daa deegi Timbuktu. Yuuni 1591 ni, dini daa niŋ ka Morroco nim ŋme n- nkpe Timbuktu, baŋdibi daa nyɛla ban zo, bee ka bi kpɛhiba sarila bee ka bi kuba.[79]

Lala baŋsim bohimbu soli ŋo daa nyɛla din za di naba ayi zuɣu hali ni 19th century, amaa 18th century daa nyɛ Al kuraani karinduri leegi baŋsim bobu soli dini saɣiti, ka baŋsim boribi gori gindi tiŋ maa zaani ni ka karimbihi suhiri bindira dabisili ni. [71]Musulinsi baŋsim bobu daa nyɛla miisim ni to shɛli French tuma, sanzali nyaanga yuuni 1970s ni 1980s ni Mali tobu 1990s nyaanŋa.[71]

Kundunima ni Kundunima kpanjoɣu[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

kundu tuha daa nyɛla dini deegi shɛli Timbuktu. shɛŋa daa nyɛla dini sabi shɛli tiŋ maani ka shɛŋa kamani Kurani shɛli dini daa mali tiri daŋ shɛŋa din mali laɣiri, nti pahi kundu shɛŋa daa nyɛla shɛŋa dini ʒi shɛŋa yi tiŋ duya ni .

Kundunima maa daa nyɛla dini soɣi shɛli jiŋa dikpina ni ka ban suli nyɛ ban gulli, kundunima ŋo pam daa nyɛla din biɛni hali ni saha shɛli tiŋ maa ni daa ti sheegi. Lala kundunima ŋo pa nyɛla dini zaŋ shɛli niŋ Timbuktu libri nim ni, din gbibi paagi 700,000 sabbunima.[80] January bahigu yuuni 2013 lahibali daa yina wuhi ni ninvuɣi biɛri daa nyɛla ban saɣim kundunima ŋo pam ka naanyi tiŋ maa ni. [81][82]" Alizumma dali asiba, 25 January 2013, jihadis nim niribi pinaanu daa nyɛla ban kpe luɣi shɛŋa kundunima ni be Ahmed Baba Institute din be Sankorè.... Lala dabbi ŋo daa nyɛla ban koli 4,202 sabbu nima yihi di biɛhigu shee ka ʒili kpe luɣi shɛli dabam....... Bi daa niŋla kpam vi li ka che manchisi dabili. Kundunima maa poɣiri maa daa nyɛla buɣim maa ni di shɛli [83]" Di zaa yoli, barina pam daa bi niŋ, kuundunima maa pam daa nyɛla dini soɣi shɛli.[84] [85][86][87]Ŋun guli library Abdel Kader Haidara, daa chɛmi ka 350,000 sabbunima yi Timbuktu nti bo soɣiri suŋ tili.[88]

  • Ahmed Baba Institute
  • Mamma Haidara Library
  • Fondo Kati
  • Al-Wangari Library
  • Mohamed Tahar Library
  • Maigala Library
  • Boularaf Collection
  • Al Kounti Collection

Lala kundunima kpanjoɣu ŋo nyɛla din nyɛ din galisi librinima kamani pihiyobu din be Timbuktu zuŋo, di bahi bahindi shɛŋa nyɛla din kundunima galisi be shelf bee bookchest maa zuɣu.[89]Lala ŋo ni too che ka kundunima ŋo saɣim bee ka bi zu shɛli, di yi chaŋ tooni ha, maasim gba nyɛla dinni too saɣim shɛli dibahi bahindi Timbuktu arid climate maa.Tumbuktu kundunima tuma shɛŋa jɛngama zuɣu karinzoŋkara ni ku liɣiri niŋ yɛlimi ni bi yɛn soŋmi ka di gbibi viɛnyɛla.

Musilinsi bibiɛhi ŋo ni daa kpe tiŋ maa saha shɛli maa, tiŋ maa niribi daa nyɛla ban kuli kpuɣi soya ni bi tiligi " kundunima din jɛndi Africa Taarihi''. Time magazine nim ni daa bohi tiŋ nima maa bohisi, bi daa nyɛla ban yɛli ni bi nyɛla ban tiligi sabbu 300,000 dahinshɛli zuɣu.Lala sabbu nima ŋo nyɛla din be tiŋmaa nima soɣiri suŋ ni, ban kuli je ni bi zaŋli ti gomnanti - Ahmed Baba Institute din nyɛ pumpoŋo na mɛbu, ka di nyɛ South Africa gomnanti n daa mɛli yuuni 2009 ni. Tuma duu maa ( Institute) nyɛla din mali sabbu nima maa kobigi puuni vaabu pia konko.[90]

Jean-Michel daa ti nyɛla ŋun yɛli The New Yorker ni'' sabbu nima pam din kalinli nyɛ kamani 50,000, daa nyɛla din be daŋ pihita naayi librinimni din be 'City of 333 Saints''. O daa lahi pahiya, ni ninvuɣ'yino dawoma ni, sabbu din kalinli nyɛ din 200,000 daa nyɛla dini kuli kpiɣi shɛli ti bo tiligibu tili.[91] Lala ŋo daa nyɛla Abdel Kader Haidara,ŋun daa nyɛ Mamma Haidara Libri kpɛma ni niŋ shɛli ka di nyɛ o din toli arizichi ka o zaŋ niŋli.Haidara daa nyɛla ŋun da kuriti din ni daa naan too kpɛhi sabbu 300. Lala kuriti ŋo din kalinli daa nyɛ 2,500 daa nyɛla dini kuli zaŋ shɛŋa tahi siɣibu shee maa tiŋ maa ni. Pam daa nyɛla bini daa ti kpiɣi shɛli Dreazen.[92]

Balli[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Di bahi bahindi French ni nyɛ Mali bali kpani maa, zuŋo niribi pam ban be Timbuktu nyɛla ban yɛri Koyra Chiini, Songhay balli din lahi nyɛ din nyɛ lingua franca.

Poi ni yuuni 1990-1994 Tuareg bala, Hassaniya Lribu ni Tamashek daa nyɛla niribi kobigu puuni vaabu pia ni yɛri shɛli ka Koyra Chiini balli daa nya niribi kobigi puuni vaabu pihinii ni yɛri shɛli. Tamashek daa nyɛla Ikelan ni Tuaregnima ni yɛri shɛli, di yɛlibu daa nyɛla din kuli siɣi pam dini daa niŋ ka Tuareg tobu la niŋ ka Tuaregniribi daa nyɛla bini kuli yihi shɛba giŋ maa ni ka lala ŋo zuɣu daa che ka Koyra Chiini daa kuli deegi ʒiya.[93]

Laribu mini musulinsi dini daa zaŋ shɛli kpe tiŋ maa ni 11th century, nyɛla baŋsim nima ni adiini nribi niyɛri shɛli, ka di maɣisiri Latin Dolodoli adiini ni. Di bahi bahindi Bamabara balli nyɛla tiŋ maa niribi pam ni yɛri shɛli Mali ni, di nyɛla din zoogi ka di kulu be tiŋ maa nudirigh zuɣu. Dini daa kuli niŋ ka Timbuktu zoori maa, Bambara daa nyɛla din yɛlibu zoori tiŋ maa ni hai ni Azawad maŋ sulunsi.[93]

Early Accounts in the west[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Timbuktu arizichi yɛltoɣa daa nyɛla din che ka European nima chaŋ Africa wulinluhili kuli noya. Timbuktu buɣisibu din daa kuli gahim n nyɛ Leo Africanus ni Shabeni nim ni daa buɣisi shɛli.

Leo Africanus[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Ŋoloŋo n daa kuli nyɛ din gaŋdu sabbunima zaŋ kpa Timbuktu poloka di nyɛ Leo Africanus n daa sabili, ŋun doɣim yuli daa nyɛ El Hasan ben Muhammed el- Wazzan-ez-Zayyati Granada ni yuuni 1485. O daŋ daa nyɛla ban pahi musulinsi niribi tuha shɛbi King Ferdinand ni Queen Isabel ni daa kari shɛba dini daa niŋ ka bi kabi deegi Spain yuuni 1492.

Bi daa nyɛla ban chaŋ nti ʒini Morocco , luɣi shɛli o ni daa chaŋ Fes n ti bohim ka daa doli o ŋahaba chani o chandinima North Africa yaɣa zaa. Lala gobu ŋo ni, o daa nyɛla ŋun kpiɣi napoŋ chaŋ Timbuktu. O ni daa kuli nyɛ nachimbilipolli, pirates daa nyɛla ban gbaago ka yɛli ni o nyɛla dabi so ŋun karim pam, ka daa nyɛ binizaŋ soti Pope Leo X, ŋun daa baho, ka suwo asori kom n daa too yuli ''Johannis Leo de Medici'' ka daa che ka o sabi buɣisi Africa zaa Italian balli ni. O sabbu ŋo n daa nyɛ luɣi shɛli Europeans pam daa nyɛ baŋsim shɛli bini mi zaŋ kpa Africa polo.O daa nyɛ ŋun buɣisi dini daa niŋ ka Songhai Empire na kuli zaya, O kundu maa siliminsili yaɣili nyɛla din malibuɣisibu ŋo:

Tombuto naa ŋun daa mali buni pam daa nyɛla ŋun mali salin taha, din tumsim daa paahi 1300 pounds.

O daa mali la yu bariba ban kalinli nyɛ 3,000 saha kam.......ka daa mali doɣitenima, alikaalinima, afanima ni baŋsim nim pam ban daa kuli nyɛ naa maa ni kuli zaŋ o arizichi gbibi shɛba.


— 

Leo Africanus daa yɛliya, ni kariwana, niɣi, bihim ni batta daa nyɛla din kuli nyɛ din biɛni pam, di bahi bahindi tiŋ maa daa nyɛla din ka puri bee orchads maa zaa yoli. Satarili shɛli ni o ni daa lan buɣisiri tiŋ maa ni naa maabuni, Africanus daa nyɛla ŋun shihi Timbuktu daabilim binyɛra, dini n nyɛ yalim daa kuli nyɛla din mali shaara tiŋ maani:

Tiŋ nima maa nyɛla ban mali arizichi pam, di bahi bahindi saamba ban daa ʒini tiŋ maa ni. Amaa yalim n kuli nyɛ binshɛli din bi galisi dama di nyɛla binshɛli dini kpiɣiri Tegaza,din mini Timbultu waɣilim nyɛ 500 miles ( 800km) . N daa nyɛla ŋun be tiŋ maani saha shɛli dini daa kohiri yɛlim puɣili ducats pihinii. Naa maa nyɛla ŋun mali salima pam.


— 

Buɣisibu nim ŋo din satara din ŋmanli daa nyɛla din gbaagi Europen goribi hankali. Africanus daa lahi nyɛla ŋun buɣisi ytiŋ maa yaɣ'shɛŋa kamani " bini daa zaŋ chalk mɛ tiŋbihi shɛŋa, ka zaŋ mori pilli- di bahi banhidi ŋo nima daa nyɛla bini bi niŋdi zaɣa ni shɛli.[94]

Shabeni[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Timbuctoo tiŋ niribi kalinli daa naan paagi niribi 40,000, ka daba ni saambi ka dini............Tiŋnimmaa zaa daa nyɛla gbaŋ sabila: sani kam daa nyɛla ŋun niŋdi tiŋ maa paɣibi amiliya, ban daa kuli viɛli hali ka bangori kanna daa nyɛ ban kore kuli nyɛ din kpɛri shɛbi ni bi tuuli nyabu.

Kamani yuma 250 LeoAfricanus ni daa kpiɣi napoŋ chaŋ Timbuktu nyaaŋa, tiŋ maa daa nyɛla din nyɛ toondaanima pam.18th centruy bahigu daa nyɛla Morocco fukumsinima ni kpe tiŋ maa ni ka di zuɣu daa che ka gomnanti bi zani di naba ayi zuɣu ka daa kuli taɣi bi bala uomyom.Bala zaɣ'yini ŋo nam ni,din daa nyɛ Hausa, yuun pinaanahi bia ,ŋun yuli daa nyʋ Shabeni ( bee Shabeeny) ŋun da yi Tetuan, Morocco ko nangban kpaŋ nuzaa zuɣu, daa nyɛla ŋun biɛli o ba ka bi kpiɣi napoŋ chaŋ tiŋ maani.[95]

Shabeni daa nyɛla ŋun be Timbuktu yuma ata poi ka daa naan ti yi n chaŋ tiŋ karili shɛli dini boli Housa [96]dabisa pam'napoŋ kpiɣibu chani nuduriguwulinluhili zuɣu. Yuma ayi nyaaŋa, o daa nyɛla ŋun labi Timbultu n ti be ni yuma apoin- niribi ban daa kuli be ni ka daba ka bini daa nyɛla ban kalinli nyɛ 21st century tiŋ maa niribi buyi zuɣu.

Shabeni daa ti yɛn paagu yuun pishiniayopoin, o daa nyɛla ŋun leegi daabiya o ya Tetuan. O daa nyɛla ŋun chaŋ haʒi yuma ayi ka daa leegu alahaʒi, Asseed El Hage Abd Salam Shabeeny.O ni daa chaŋ daabilim gorim Hamburg ka kunna,Siliminsi ban daa be ŋarim ni daa nyɛla bangbaago, amaa biŋarim ŋo zuɣu bi daa sala Russia tuuta,ka ŋun daa lihiri ŋarim daa daa yɛli ni o Imperial mistress ( Catherine the Great) daa nyɛlaŋun mini Muselmen zaa mali zabil( lahi lihimi Russo-Turkish War ( 1787-1792)).O mini ŋarim shɛli ni o ni daa be maa daa nyɛla dini zaʋ shɛli tahi Ostend din be Belgium silimingoli December yuuni 1789 amaa British consul daa nyɛla ŋun kuli lihi ka bi daa bahi o mini ŋarim maa.O daa nyɛla ŋun lahi kpiɣi napoŋ lala ŋarim ŋo ni,amaa ŋun daa duhiri ŋarim maa, ka daa yɛli ni dabiɛm malo ni bi ti lahi gbaagi o ŋarim ŋo daa nyɛla ŋun sheego zali Dover. England tingbani ni, olahibali daa nyɛla bini sabi shɛli.Shabeni daa nyɛla ŋun wuhi tiŋ maa galisim 18th century bahigu pirigili ni. Satarili tuuli puuni, o daa buɣisi tiŋ maa ka ni nyɛ tihi ni kuli zibigi shɛli n gari pumpoŋo na.

In Popular Culture[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Dini daa kuli niŋ ka salima din zoogi Europe pam maa 17th ni 18th century daa nyɛla din yina Timbultu, tiŋa nyɛla bini kuli lihi shɛli ka di nyɛ lahiʒiba shee din soɣi.[97]Lala yɛltoɣa ŋo nyɛla modern Europeans ni North Americans nima ni mi shɛli: yuuni 2006 dini daa vihi 150 Britons, bi daa nyami kamani niribi kobigi puuni vaabu pihitanaahi daa nyɛla ban bi dihi tabili ni lala tiŋ ŋo namin biɛni ka niribi ban kpalim kobigi puuni vaabu pihiyobu naa yobu daa yɛli, ni lala yiŋ ŋo nyɛla din nyɛ lahiʒibu shee. [98]Lala ŋo daa nyɛla din be kundunima ni ka buɣisiri Africa Taarihi ni Africa-European ʒiʒiinitali. An duniya yaangi zuɣu wulinluhili nim yɛltoɣa ni, Timbuktu nyɛla luɣ'shɛli bini yɛli ni dibiɛla katiŋ pam[99].[100]

Lala yɛltoɣa ŋo nyɛla din be suhupɛlli shɛli lala taarihi nim ni daa ti Europe, balintee Leo Afrincanus Africa buɣisibu ni.

Laribu yaɣa daa nyɛla din kuli jɛndi tiŋsi din be Timbuktu yaɣili kamani Gao ni Walata.[101] West Africa waɣili, tiŋ maa nyɛla din lihibu nyɛ bini zaŋ shɛli ŋahindi Europe nima ni lihiri Athens shɛm.[102]Lala ŋo, tiŋ maa anfooni din daaa wuhiri waɣilim ni lahiʒiba nyɛla din yi Europe na.[103]

Din kuli do timgbani ni,Africanus buɣisibu ŋo puuni daa nyɛla bini bi lihiri nyari shɛli ka lahibaya din daa wuhi ni tiŋ maa mali buni pam daa nyɛla din chd ka niribi kuli gori chani tiŋ maa ni- ka gogora ŋun nyɛ French nira ka o yuli nyɛ Renè Caillièdaa nyɛ ŋun buɣisi Timbuktu ka di nyɛ " luɣi shɛli din kuli mali yi biɛri ". [104]Pumpoŋo dini pa mi shɛli, niribi pam ban gori daa nyɛla ban saɣito African El Dorado buɣisibu maa. [105]Lala ŋo daa nyɛla din vuugi niribi ni lihiri tiŋ maa shɛm - din daa kuli nyɛ dini mi shɛli di salma zuɣu n ti leegi tiŋ shɛli niribi ni pa lihiri di ni be shɛm.Bini daa kuli nyɛ dini lihirili lala ŋo, Silminsili yɛltoɣa kundunima pa yɛlimi ka Timbultu nyɛ mataphor zaŋ ti tiŋ waɣilni kam.[106][107]

Twin towns and sister cities[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

  • Chemnitz, Germany
  • Hay-on-Wye, Wales (United Kingdom)
  • Kairouan, Tunisia
  • Marrakesh, Morocco
  • Saintes, France
  • Tempe, United States

Lahi Lihi[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

  • List of cities in Mali
  • History of Timbuktu
  • Timbuktu Renaissance, an initiative to rebuild the city's economy through music and culture

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Kundivihira[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

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