Minaret of Jam

Diyila Dagbani Wikipedia
Yiɣi chaŋ yaɣa shɛli Yiɣi chaŋ vihigu ni
Minaret of Jam
minaret, archaeological site
Pahi laMinaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam Mali niŋ
Di pilli ni1194 Mali niŋ
TiŋaAfghanistan Mali niŋ
Din be shɛli polonaShahrak District Mali niŋ
Dini be shɛliFirozkoh Mali niŋ
Tiŋgbaŋ yaɣili calinli34°23′47″N 64°30′57″E Mali niŋ
Significant eventlist of World Heritage in Danger Mali niŋ
Binyɛra ka bɛ zaŋ namlibrick Mali niŋ
Heritage designationpart of UNESCO World Heritage Site Mali niŋ
Map

E-Class

Jam Nim Manaara/ Minaret of Jam

Minaret of jam nyɛla UNESCO world Heritage site din be western Afghanistan, di nyɛla din be tinkpaŋ' shɛli niriba ni bi tooi paari shɛli, din be Shahrak District, Ghor province, din pa mɔɣ' shɛli zuɣu di ni booni Hari river. Maali pihiyɔbu ni ayi(62m) (213ft)[1] bee maali pihiyɔbu ni anu (65m) ( 213ft).[2] Minaret din waɣa ŋɔ daa nyɛla bɛ ni daa mɛ shɛli ka di waɣilim nyɛ kamani bini tuhupia ni tuhuli ni pihiwɔi ka di zaa nyɛ bɛ ni zaŋ bulooku shɛli bɛ ni boli baked bricks mɛ shɛli, ka di nyɛ niriba ni mi shɛli yɛla pam zaŋ kpa tandi shɛli bɛ ni zaŋ mɛ li maa zuɣu, bɛ ni zaŋ binshɛŋa n-dihili naɣachiinsi, din nyɛ kufic baaninima (bands) , ni naski calligraphy, tingbani so'dolisi nti pahi kuraani surinima. Yuuni 2002 hali ni zuŋɔ, Minaret ŋɔ nyɛla din kpalim pahi anduniya nyaaŋa zuɣu Heritage shɛŋa din be gamo ni, di nyɛla din be tiŋgbani dambu polo ni ninmɔhi, ka na bi tooi gu ka taɣi.[3] Yuuni 2014 puuni, bɛ ni boli shɛba BBC daa yɛliya ni di goon'waɣinli (tower) maa nyɛla din be gamo puuni ka ni tooi ku lu.[4]

Yuuni 2020 Minaret daa nyɛla di ni kali shɛli pahi kaya ni taada Heritage site shɛŋa din be Musulinsi adiini polo zaŋ Islamic_World_Educational,_Scientific_and_Cultural_Organization ( ICESCO) nima vihigu polo. Afghanistan Ministry of foreign affairs (MoFA) yɛliya ni Minaret of jam nyɛla Afghanistanima kaya ni taɣada tuuli Heritage site ICESCO ni daa kali.[5]

Di gbunni[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

bachi shɛli din nyɛ Minaret ŋɔ nyɛla bachi shɛli din nyɛ laribanchi, ka di gbunni tooi nyɛ goon'waɣinli (tower) shɛli din miri jiŋli ka ninvuɣ'so ŋun mooni jiŋli ( muezzin) tooi zaani mooni jiŋli m-booni jiŋ' puhiriba. Di gbunni n lahi nyɛ yili din ne, di gbunni zooya pam.

Yaɣili[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Minaret of jam ŋɔ nyɛla din be yaɣi shɛli din nyɛ Gburid dynasty tiŋ'zuɣu Firozkoh.

Taarihi[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Jam minaret
Timurid conqueror Babur advances through Jam and the mountains to Kabul.


12th and 13th century saha la ka Ghurids nim daa gbibi shɛli polo ti m-pa mi Afghanistan la, ni Eastern Iran, Central Asia, Northern India ni Pakistani yaɣa shɛŋa.[6]

Larigu sabbu din yi minaret saha la ŋɛla din dii be ne n-doya - di ŋmanila di sabimi ni yuuni 1193/4 bee 1174/5 be yi yɛn lɛbigi li n-ti Gregorian dates. Din tooi nyɛ teebu n-ti Ghurid sultan Ghiyas ud-Din ni daa nyɛ nasara Ghaznevids zuɣu yuuni 1186 Lahore puuni. Din nyaaŋa, British Archeologist ni Director n zaŋ ti British Institute of Afghan Studies zaŋ gbaai 1970 yuuni daa sabi karim gbaŋ zaŋ chɛŋ Minarets of Jam ni Ghazni polo ka wuhi ni O dihi tabili ni kadama ni be daa mɛla minaret ni di nyɛ teebu zaŋ ti Mu'izz ad-Din nasara ŋun daa nyɛ "Ghiyath ud-Din" ma'bii ka che Prithviraj Chauhan la. Bi Nasara ŋɔ daa che ka Musulinsi wuligi northern India subcontinent zaa. Pinder-Wilson dihitabili ni be daa mɛla minaret lala saha maa mɛbu, ni ti pahi Musulinsi nasara piyoya din wuhiri Musulinsi yaa ni di sulinsi kpɛŋ.

Zahimbu yina wuhi ni Minaret daa tabi la Firozkoh nim Zumba Jiŋli, dini ka Ghurid nim taarihi gbaŋ'ŋmara so ŋun yuli booni Abu 'Ubayd al-Juzjani yɛli ni ko'kpɛɣu daa nyɛla din di li n chɛŋ, Saha shɛli poi ka Mongol nim daa ŋmɛ n fa li 13th century piligu la. [citation needed] Vihibu tuma din be Jam puuni ka be boli li Minaret of Jam Archaeological Project nim nyɛ shɛhira din wuhi ni Minaret tabila yili din dundɔŋ galisi, ni shɛhira din wuhi ni mɔɣili kɔm daa zɔri la bulooku shɛli be ni daa zaŋ sɔŋ dundɔŋ maa zuɣu.

Ghurid Empire nam daa kpaaya din daa niŋ Ghiyath ud-Din kɔŋ O Nyɛvuli yuuni 1202 puli ni, din daa ʒiya ni be labisimi be tingbani n-ti Khwarezm Empire. Juzjani wuhiya ni Mongols n daa wurim Firuzkuh 1222 yuuni puli ni.

Niriba ban daa pa Afghanistan nima daa be mi Minaret naɣ'la din daa niŋ ka Sir Thomas Holdich yɛli di yɛltɔɣa 1886 yuuni din daa niŋ ka O tumdi n tiri Afghan Boundary Commission nima. Duniya nim daa be mi di yɛla naɣila 1957 yuuni, French archaeologists so ŋun yuli booni shɛba André Maricq ni Gaston Wiet la tuma puuni. Din nyaaŋa Werner Herberg daa niŋ vihigu zaɣ'gahindili lala polo ŋɔ maa ni yuma 1970s polo, ka Ralph Pinder-Wilson daa naai O vihigu kpani polo ŋɔ zuɣu lala yuma maa noo, poi ka Soviet invasion of 1979 daa naan yi ŋmaai ba m-bahi ka che sambanni nima.

Inscriptional Content[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Di zuɣusaa polo mali la sabbu din wuhiri Musulinsi shahada; "N di shahara ni duuna n-kani naɣ'la Kpɛŋlan Naawuni ka di shahara ni Anabi Mohammaŋ n-nyɛ Naawuni tumo." Din pa sabbu dibaayi din be di zuɣusaa n-nyɛ al-Saff suurili din mali aaya pinaata la (surat al-Saff LXI); "Sɔŋsim din yi Naawuni sani na, ni pumpɔŋɔ nasara. Yaa nyin Anabi Mohammaŋ, tim ban dihitabili suhupiɛlli. Yaa tinim ban ti Naawuni yɛlmaŋli.

Sabbu din sabi di gbunni malila Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad bin Samyuya yuya ni o salima ka di do be ni sabi Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad yu'shɛli ni be ni zaŋ "turquoise mosaic tiles" n-sabi shɛli ka di bara n-yi polo la gbunni.

Boobu din mali yaɣa ayɔbu gbunni (oblong hexagon) din mali naskhi line dibaayi di gbunni, "'Ali ibn tuma...", Be be lahi baŋ din kpalim la.

Din sabi n-nyɛ, "Abu'l-Fath", din nyɛhi yi zaa dama di tari maa yuuya.

"Interlaced bands" ka be sabi surat Maryam XIX.[14] Kufic sabbu puunii kpa North polo n yɛra: "Dabisili Yuun five hundred and nineteen" (equivalent of 27 December 1193 to 16 December 1194).

Threat[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

"Erosion", kɔm ni ko'kpɛɣu nyɛla din po' tii ni din di Minaret of Jam di ni niŋ ka di miri Hari ni Jam kulisi la. Tingbani di be lala yaɣili maa lahi nyɛla din po ni di ni wurim li. Piyoli ŋɔ nyɛla din gbiligira sahakam ka dinzuɣu che ka be kuli maani li mi niŋdi saha shɛli kam.

Vihigu lahabali daa yina n-wuhi ni tayiɣisi mini "illegal excavations" daa nyɛla din daa  saɣim "archaeological site" din gili Miratet maa din daa niŋ ka "British explorer" ni "Parliament Rory Stewart" nim la daa go n-chɛŋ ni yuuni 2002 puuni la.

Silimiin gɔli 21 July 2018, Pajhwok News lahabali daa yina n-wuhi Taliban nim mini tiŋ'bi shɛba ban daa gili maa daa nyɛla ban kpe taba ni, ŋme taba buɣim hali ni hawa dibaa yɔbu. "Ghor Director of Culture and Information Fakhruddin Ariapoor" nim daa wuhi be su'jee zaŋ chɛŋ din niŋ ka tɔbiri ni suhudoo kalinsi be lala yaɣili ŋɔ maa sahashɛlikam maa, mo'maha ni tihi din gili li maa yaɣ'shɛŋa daa nyɛla din saɣim amaa binshɛɣu daa be niŋ minaret maa, ka lee yɛli ni gɔmnanti ni be zaŋ o zaŋsim n niŋ di gulibu ni, bi'biɛhi nyɛla ban ni ti wurim li.

Conservation[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

"French explorers" n-daa vihi n-yi minaret maa zuɣu 1958 yuuni puuni. Be vihisi puuni, ka be yu ni be mali li labisi din daa pun be shɛm ni din lahi yɛn baligi di saɣimbu soya. Amaa din daa niŋ ka Soviet ŋmɛ n fa Afghanistan la daa che ka shɛli be niŋ zaŋ kpa di polo.

UNESCO nim mɔya ni be kpa zahimbu soya n ti li. Yuuni 2012 , UNESCO nim daa kpuɣi so'chibsi ni be niŋ "3D" vihibu, "hydraulic" zahimbu, ni "Daantalisi kpaŋsibu, ni Minaret maa dikiya malibu, ka be lahi mŋahi foto shɛŋa din be di sambanni maa ni di too che ka be buɣisi n-sɔŋ din dee yi ti niŋ ka be yɛn labi n-mali li saha shɛŋa din kan na. Di mini Iconem daa naai Minaret "3D modelling"nti UNESCO zaa yɔli, politiisi zuɣ'zuɣi  daa che ka be be too nyɛ liɣiri sɔŋsim ka be lahi tooi kpe di maliŋ ni. Din lahi pahi nyɛ, tampima din gili ni maa zaa gba che tuma be be chɛni viɛnyɛla dama niriba be too paari ni. Amaa zahimbu soya maa nyɛla din wuhi maliŋ din ni yɛn kana. Din daa niŋ ka din nyɛ polo ni tuma la na kuli nyɛla din to la daa che "archaeologists" nim zaŋ Google Maps puuni anfooni nima n-nyɛ yɛli pala zaŋ kpa Minaret ni din kɔɣa li.

Minaret of Jam melts into rugged landscape

Pahibu ni tooi pahi, ni di tuya ni kpaŋmaŋ pahi tabi n-sɔŋ n-gu ka taɣi minaret n-zali. Tayiɣisi ni yi ti ʒɛri binyɛra di yi ti niŋ da damli dam la  wuhiya ni di gubu be bi niya nim tooi dama "archeological site" nim ka be tooi zura. Yaha, di tuya ni Afghanistan nim zaŋ be nuu kpehi, din yɛn che ka be yubu ni be ni tabi li la zuɣu che ka liɣiri sɔŋsim too che ka be ti tooi mali di dahinshɛli maliŋ.


Gallery/AnfooAnfooni[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Lihi pahi/See also[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Further reading[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

  • Dupree, Nancy Hatch (1977): An Historical Guide to Afghanistan. 1st Edition: 1970. 2nd Edition. Revised and Enlarged. Afghan Tourist Organization
  • Sampietro, Albert (July 28, 2003). "The Minaret of Jam in Afghanistan". albertsampietro.com. http://www.albertsampietro.com/?p=45.
  • Freya Stark: The Minaret of Djam, an excursion in Afghanistan, London: John Murray, 1970
  • Dan Cruickshank (ed.), Sir Banister Fletcher's A History of Architecture, 20th edition, Architectural Press 1996, ISBN 0-7506-2267-9
  • Herberg, W. with D. Davary, 1976. Topographische Feldarbeiten in Ghor: Bericht über Forschungen zum Problem Jam-Ferozkoh. Afghanistan Journal 3/2, 57–69.
  • Maricq, A. & G. Wiet, 1959. Le Minaret de Djam: la découverte de la capitale des Sultans Ghurides (XIIe-XIIIe siècles). (Mémoires de la Délégation archéologique française en Afghanistan 16). Paris.
  • Sourdel-Thomine, J., 2004. Le minaret Ghouride de Jam. Un chef d'oeuvre du XIIe siècle. Paris: Memoire de l'Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres.
  • Stewart, Rory. 2006. The Places In Between. Harvest Books. ISBN 0-15-603156-6.
  • Thomas, David, 2018. The Ebb and Flow of the Ghurid Empire. Sydney University Press. ISBN 9781743325414.
  • Thomas, David, 2004. Looting, heritage management and archaeological strategies at Jam, Afghanistan
  • Thomas, D.C., G. Pastori & I. Cucco, 2004. “Excavations at Jam, Afghanistan.” East and West 54 (Nos. 1–4) pp. 87–119.
  • Thomas, D.C., G. Pastori & I. Cucco, 2005. The Minaret of Jam Archaeological Project at Antiquity
  • Thomas, D.C., & A. Gascoigne, in press. Recent Archaeological Investigations of Looting at Jam, Ghur Province, in J. van Krieken (ed.) Afghanistan’s Cultural Heritage: its Fall and Survival. Leiden: E.J. Brill.

External links[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Kundivihira[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

  1. Ghaznavid and Ghūrid Minarets, Ralph Pinder-Wilson, Iran, Vol. 39, (2001), 167.
  2. ^
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b
  4. ^
  5. ^ Jump up to:a b
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b c d
  7. ^ Ghaznavid and Ghūrid Minarets, Ralph Pinder-Wilson, Iran, Vol. 39, 169-170.
  8. ^ Jump up to:a b
  9. ^ Jump up to:a b Ghaznavid and Ghūrid Minarets, Ralph Pinder-Wilson, Iran, Vol. 39, 170.
  10. ^backdoorbroadcasting, Warwick Ball: Ralph Pinder-Wilson and Afghanistan, http://backdoorbroadcasting.net/2010/01/warwick-ball-ralph-pinder-wilson-and-afghanistan/
  11. ^ Jump up to:a b Minaret of Jam Archaeological Project, http://antiquity.ac.uk/ProjGall/thomas/ Archived 2006-04-26 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ André Maricq, Gaston Wiet, La découverte de la capitale des sultans ghorides : XIIe-XIIIe s., Paris, Klincksieck, 1959 ("Mémoires de la Délégation archéologique française en Afghanistan", 16). Ghaznavid and Ghūrid Minarets, Ralph Pinder-Wilson, Iran, 166.
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^ Ghaznavid and Ghūrid Minarets, Ralph Pinder-Wilson, Iran, 168-169.
  16. ^
  17. ^ Stewart, Rory. 2006. The Places In Between. Harvest Books. ISBN 0-15-603156-6.
  18. ^ منصور خسروhttps://www.pajhwok.com/en/2018/07/21/taliban-storm-checkpoints-near-ancient-ghor-minaret
  19. ^
  20. ^ "Minaret of Jam | Endangered Sites".endangeredsites.leadr.msu.edu. Retrieved2018-11-07.

Karim pahi[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

  • Dupree, Nancy Hatch (1977): An Historical Guide to Afghanistan. 1st Edition: 1970. 2nd Edition. Revised and Enlarged. Afghan Tourist Organization
  • Freya Stark: The Minaret of Djam, an excursion in Afghanistan, London: John Murray, 1970
  • Dan Cruickshank (ed.), Sir Banister Fletcher's A History of Architecture, 20th edition, Architectural Press 1996, ISBN 0-7506-2267-9
  • Herberg, W. with D. Davary, 1976. Topographische Feldarbeiten in Ghor: Bericht über Forschungen zum Problem Jam-Ferozkoh. Afghanistan Journal 3/2, 57–69.
  • Maricq, A. & G. Wiet, 1959. Le Minaret de Djam: la découverte de la capitale des Sultans Ghurides (XIIe-XIIIe siècles). (Mémoires de la Délégation archéologique française en Afghanistan 16). Paris.
  • Sourdel-Thomine, J., 2004. Le minaret Ghouride de Jam. Un chef d'oeuvre du XIIe siècle. Paris: Memoire de l'Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres.
  • Stewart, Rory. 2006. The Places In Between. Harvest Books. ISBN 0-15-603156-6.
  • Thomas, David, 2018. The Ebb and Flow of the Ghurid Empire. Sydney University Press. ISBN 9781743325414.
  • Thomas, David, 2004. Looting, heritage management and archaeological strategies at Jam, Afghanistan
  • Thomas, D.C., G. Pastori & I. Cucco, 2004. “Excavations at Jam, Afghanistan.” East and West 54 (Nos. 1–4) pp. 87–119.
  • Thomas, D.C., G. Pastori & I. Cucco, 2005. The Minaret of Jam Archaeological Project at Antiquity
  • Thomas, D.C., & A. Gascoigne, in press. Recent Archaeological Investigations of Looting at Jam, Ghur Province, in J. van Krieken (ed.) Afghanistan’s Cultural Heritage: its Fall and Survival. Leiden: E.J. Brill.

Sambani Kundivihira[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

.http://www.arch.cam.ac.uk/~alg1000/mjap/

2.http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=6643&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html

3.https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/211

4. http://www.orientalarchitecture.com/afghanistan/statewide/minaretjam.php

5. http://www.turquoisemountain.org/

6.http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/7380050.stm