Yiɣi chaŋ yɛligu maŋamaŋa puuni

Gadaa

Diyila Dagbani Wikipedia
Gadaa
democracy
Tingbani shɛli din yinaEthiopia Mali niŋ
Intangible cultural heritage statusRepresentative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity Mali niŋ
Described at URLhttps://ich.unesco.org/en/RL/01164, https://ich.unesco.org/fr/RL/01164, https://ich.unesco.org/es/RL/01164 Mali niŋ
Professor Asmerom Legesse in Abbaa Gadaa cloth.
Gadaa flag

Gadaa[1] (Tɛmplet:Lang-om; literally: era) nyɛla "indigenous democratic system" zaŋ n-ti Oromos din be Ethiopia mini northern Kenya.[1] Konso gba nyɛla ban niŋdi li n-ti pahi Gedeo people zaŋ n-ti southern Ethiopia. Di nyɛla din lɛbigiri siyaasa tali, tiŋgbani kuhima ni damma, biɛhi suŋ n-ti pahi adiini ʒilɛli ni.[2][3][4]

Gadaa saha, yuma anii kam, Oromo nyɛla din yɛn piigi kpamba awɔi ka bɛ booni ba Salgan ya’ii Borana ("the nine Borana assemblies").[5][6] Kpɛma so bɛn piigi n-ti gadaa system nyɛla ŋun be nam ni yuma anii koŋkor, ka piibu- piibu nyɛ din lahi niŋda yuma anii ŋɔ ni naaibu ni.[7][8][9] Saha kam ka Abbaa Gadaa yi kpi ka na be nam ni, the bokkuu (shɛhira shɛli din wuhiri yaa) din yɛn zaŋ li n-ti o paɣa ka o tuɣi bokkuu ka doli di zalikpana.[10]

Gada system nyɛla bɛn daa zaŋ shɛli pahi UNESCO ka di be Intangible Cultural Heritage tum yuuni 2016.[11] Di ŋmali nyɛ Oromo din yina Madda Walabu district zaŋ n-ti Oromia.[12][13] Oromo niriba nyɛla ban kpaɣi lala biɛhigu ŋɔ bɛ "common heritage".[14] Lala biɛhigu ŋɔ puuni ka Oromo niriba be zaŋ n-ti kurumbuna ni ha.[15][16]

Oromo nyɛla ban gbubi bɛ maŋ n-doli Gadaa system saha waɣala pɔi ni 16th century, din daa niŋ ka paati dibaa ata tɔbu niŋ bɛ mini Ethiopian Empire din be bɛ walin pɔhili n-ti pahi Adal Sultanate din be bɛ walin luhili sunsuun. Di daliri daa nyɛla Oromo daa nyɛla din deei dolodolo mini musulinsi adiini nima. Borana mini Guji daa nyɛ din miri Ethiopian-Kenyan border nyɛla ban daa tooi niŋdi Gadaa ka yɛltɔɣ'muɣisirili shɛli ka din ni. Yuuni 2015, Gadaa Center din be Odaa Bultum nyɛ din daa piligi ka yuuni 2018, Gadaa Center din be Odaa Hullee nyɛ bɛn daa kpihim shɛli din daa niŋ ka yɛltɔɣ'muɣisira daa be din ni.[17][18] Yuuni 2019, Bule Hora University nyɛla ban daa piligi "master's degree" zaŋ jɛndi Gadaa bɔhimbu.[19]

Nahingbana[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Luba[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Gadaa ʒilɛli ni nyɛla bɛn daa pu shɛli doli niriba yuma ka daa boli Luba. luba kam nyɛla din daa mali bihi. Di "grade" maa zaa nyɛla din daa mali "grade" nim koŋkoba pin'yini, ka di zaa niŋdi yuma anii ka di zaa mali di zuɣu rights mini responsibilities.[20]

Gadaa Grades[21]
Daballe Junior Gaammee Foollee Kuusaa Raabaa Doorii Gadaa Yuuba I Yuuba II & III Gadaamoojjii Jaarsa
Age 0-8 9-16 17-24 25-32 33-40 41-48 49-56 57-64 & 65-72 73-80 >80
Characters No responsibility Student Military trainee Military Warrior Leader Advisor Repositories of law Conducts Rites No responsibility

"Grade" nim ŋɔ nyɛla din doli lɛbigimsim soya hali ni yuma anii.

Baallii[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Baallii nyɛla yaa taɣi zaŋ n-ti so Gadaa paati yini puuni.

Gadaa Party (Gogeessa Gadaa)[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Gadaa paati nim anu be ni ka bɛ booni li shanan Gadaa Oromoo. Paati nim ŋɔ nyɛla din doli zalikpana anu zaŋ n-ti Oromo niriba. Paati kam nyɛla din kana nam ni yuun pihinahi nyaaŋa. Din zuɣu kpaɣiribu kani zaŋ n-ti Gadaa paati nim anu ŋɔ, amaa ka kpaɣiribu lee be ninvuɣ shɛba ban be paati yini ni. Gadaa paati nim anu ŋɔ nyɛla din mali yu koŋkoba, di yuya nyɛ Boorana, Maccaa-Tuulama, Arsii, Gujii n-ti pahi Ituu-Humbannaa.[22][23]

Gadaa Parties
Boorana Maccaa-Tuulama Arsii Gujii Ituu-Humbannaa
Meelba / Harmufaa Birmajii Birmajii Harmufa Horata
Muudana / Roobalee Michilee / Muudana Roobalee Roobalee Dibbaaqa
Kiilolee / Birmajii Duuloo / Halchiisa Bahara Muudana Dibbeessa
Biifolee / Muldhata Meelbaa / Hambissaa Horata Halchiisa Fadata
Michilee / Duuloo Roobalee Daraara

Vihigu[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Baŋdiba pam nyɛla ban bɔhim Gadaa. Legesse[24] nyɛla ŋun sabi wuhi ni Gadaa nyɛla "nyɛla binshɛli din viɛli pam n-ti ninsali nim ʒilɛli ni". Din pahiri o Harvard PhD dissertation, Legesse nyɛla ŋun ŋmɛ buku ka zaŋ li wuhi salo[25] ka yɛli ni Gadaa nyɛla African democracy din kpahiri niri zalikpani zaaniba. Donald Levine ŋun daa kpi la daa yɛliya ni [26] Gadaa nyɛla "binshɛli din pahi binshɛŋa din gbaai ka di niŋbu tu pam n-ti ninsali nima".

Role of women[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Tuuli, Gadaa system nyɛla siyaasa biɛhigu tuma ka di nyɛ din taɣiri gomnanti ni, kuhima ni damma kpaŋsibu, binyɛra miɛbu ni din kam pahi. Di "academically debatable" nyɛla din bi ti Oromo paɣaba soli ni bɛ di kpamli Abbaa Gadaa paɣa nyɛla ŋun mali jilima kamani Abbaa Gadaa maŋmaŋ.[27] Siinqee feminist nyɛ ŋun zaani n-tiri paɣaba gadaa system.[28]

Lihimi m-pahi[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Kundivihira[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Gada system, an indigenous democratic socio-political system of the Oromo.
  2. Gada system, an indigenous democratic socio-political system of the Oromo.
  3. Intro to the Gadaa System[permanent dead link]
  4. Oromo Indigenous Philosophy (Gadaa System): The Case of 74th Gujii Oromo Gadaa Power Transition (PDF)
  5. Galla, Candace (2012). "Sustaining generations of Indigenous voices: Reclaiming language and integrating multimedia technology". {World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium Journal: 46–48.
  6. Tesema Ta'a (2006). The Political Economy of an African Society in Transformation: the Case of Macca Oromo (Ethiopia). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-3-447-05419-5.
  7. John Ralph Willis (2005). Slaves and Slavery in Africa: Volume Two: The Servile Estate. Routledge. pp. 122–127, 129–134, 137. ISBN 978-1-135-78017-3.
  8. John Ralph Willis (2005). Slaves and Slavery in Africa: Volume Two: The Servile Estate. Routledge. pp. 128–134. ISBN 978-1-135-78016-6.
  9. Ira M. Lapidus (2014). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. p. 483. ISBN 978-1-139-99150-6.
  10. The Gadaa System and Some of Its Institutions among the Booranaa: A Historical Perspective 91–92.
  11. Gada system, an indigenous democratic socio-political system of the Oromo.
  12. A heroic send-off for Aliyi Cirri, a pioneer Oromo freedom fighter whose courage and bravery inspired generations (17 November 2017).
  13. Historical Background.
  14. The Gada sysytem; full Dimocratical politics of Oromo;71stBorana BalliHand overing Day Febrawary 2009/20017:The Gada of Kura Jarso..
  15. Gada System inscribed in UNESCO as Intangible World Heritage.
  16. Briefing: What is Oromo's Gada system? (December 2016).
  17. The 2015 Commemoration of Odaa-Bultum (One of the Major Oromo Gadaa System's Administrative Centers).
  18. A Journey to Revitalizing Gadaa at Odaa Hullee: Tracing Jimma University's Unwavering Commitment.
  19. Bule Hora University Journey.
  20. The Gadaa System of the Oromo People. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  21. Gadaa Grades.
  22. "A Future Gaze: Gadaa Oriented Constitutional Structure for Oromia". Gadaa Journal: 15–16.
  23. "Waa'ee Gadaa wantoota beekuu qabdan shan". https://www.bbc.com/afaanoromoo/oduu-42218860.
  24. Asmarom Legesse, "Gadaa: Three Approaches to the Study of African Society", 1973
  25. Asmarom Legesse, "Oromo Democracy: an Indigenous African Political System", 2006
  26. Donald Levine, "Greater Ethiopia: The Evolution of a Multiethnic Society", 1974
  27. Oromo Indigenous Philosophy (Gadaa System): The Case of 74th Gujii Oromo Gadaa Power Transition (PDF)
  28. Oromo Indigenous Philosophy (Gadaa System): The Case of 74th Gujii Oromo Gadaa Power Transition (PDF)

Bibliography[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

  • Ulrich Braukämper, Layers Islamic History and Culture in Southern Ethiopia (2003)
  • Joseph Van de Loo, "Guji Oromo Culture in Southern Ethiopia." Berlin: Reimer, 1991.
  • Asmarom Legesse, "Gadaa: Three Approaches to the Study of African Society", 1973
  • Donald Levine, "Greater Ethiopia: The Evolution of a Multiethnic Society", 1974
  • Asmarom Legesse, "Oromo Democracy: an Indigenous African Political System", 2006
  • Asafa Jalata, Gadaa (Oromo Democracy): An Example of Classical African Civilization, Journal of Pan-African Studies (2012)
  • Tenna Dewo. 2008. The Concept of Peace in the Oromo Gadaa System: Its Mechanisms and Moral Dimension. Journal of Oromo Studies 15.1: 139-180. Web access[permanent dead link]
  • Z. Sirna, "Ethiopia: When the Gadaa Democracy Rules in a Federal State", 2012
  • Participedia Contributors, "The Gadaa System of the Oromo People," last modified September 7, 2018, Retrieved from https://participedia.xyz/method/4865 Archived 2019-01-30 at the Wayback Machine