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Epic of King Gesar

Diyila Dagbani Wikipedia
Epic of King Gesar
literary work, epic poem
Din be shɛli polonaTibetan Empire, Mongolia Mali niŋ
Nuu tuunbaŋsim balibuMongol epic poetry Mali niŋ
Tingbani shɛli din yinaChina Mali niŋ
Described at URLhttps://ich.unesco.org/en/RL/00204, https://ich.unesco.org/fr/RL/00204, https://ich.unesco.org/es/RL/00204 Mali niŋ

Mural depicting Gesar

Epic of King Gesar (Tɛmplet:Bo), bɛ sabiri li la Geser (balli lee Mongolian sabu ni) bee Kesar (/ˈkɛzər, ˈkɛs-/), nyɛla tuma zaŋ n-ti epic literature ban be Tibet mini Central Asia. "The epic" ŋɔ nyɛla din piligi kamani 200 BCE bee 300 BCE saha ka nyɛ din paai kamani 600 CE. Lala zuɣu, "folk balladeers" nyɛla ban mali tuma ŋɔ taarihi n-tiri bɛ bihi shɛba ban na yiɣisirina bɛ noli ni. Lala tuma ŋɔ nyɛla niriba pam ni baŋ shɛli 12th Century.

"The Epic" ŋɔ nyɛla din jɛndi tun'kara zaŋ n-ti culture hero Gesar,[1] "legendary kingdom of Ling" Naa so ŋun daa bi zori dabiɛm (Tɛmplet:Bo). Di nyɛla bɛn niŋ shɛli yɛltɔɣitaɣimalisi mini salinwaɣinli din nyɛ nolini baŋsim kotomsi, [2] ka di nyɛ niriba ni mali shɛli yiinda yila Central Asia mini South Asia. Di nyɛla jilima taarihi din be central Tibet.[3]

100 bards shɛba zaŋ n-ti epic ŋɔ (Tɛmplet:Bo, "tale")[4] nyɛla din na mali yaa zuŋɔ be Gesar belt, China.[5] Tibetan, Mongolian, Buryat, Balti, Ladakhi n-ti pahi Monguor yili yiindiba nyɛla ban na kuli gbubi di nolini baŋsim kotomsi ŋɔ. Yugur[6] mini Salar,[7] gba "epic" nyɛla din be Balti din be Baltistan, Burusho people ban be Hunza n-ti pahi Gilgit [6] ni Kalmyk mini Ladakhi niriba[8][9] ban be Nepal n-ti pahi Altaics, Turkic, Tungus tribes.[10] Di tuuli baŋsim sabirili nyɛla bɛn daa sabi shɛli Mongolian balli ni ka daa zaŋ li wuhi salo Beijing yuuni 1716.[11]

Di nyɛla din bara ka nyɛ din mali jilima pam dunia ŋɔ.[4] Di ka sabiri yini, Chinese ni sabi shɛli Tibetan versions nyɛla din mali "120 volumes," ,[4] di pirigi la "chapters" pihita yinika.[12] Western laasabu maaniba yɛliya ni buku nim din kalinli gari pihinu ka bɛ sabi saha ŋɔ China, India n-ti pahi Tibet.[4]

Etymology zaŋ n-ti di gbuni[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Lahabali nyɛla din wuhi ni Gesar yuli nyɛla din be Roman title Caesar, tum kaiser (emperor) ni kpɛ Turkic ka di nyɛla bɛ daa doli la Byzantine Empire di saha Caesar (Καῖσαρ) daa nyɛ "imperial title". Shɛba tɛhi la soli shɛli din doli kpɛna nyɛla Mongolian Kesar. Mongols daa nyɛla allied with the Byzantines, ban tiŋgbani na mali lala yuli maa.[13]

Coin of Fromo Kesaro ("Caesar of Rome"), king of the Turk Shahis, circa 738-745 CE.

"Numismatic evidence"[lower-alpha 1] ni ninvuɣ shɛba nyɛla ban yɛli yɛltɔɣa zaŋ kpa Bactrian ruler Phrom-kesar,[14] Kabul Shahi zaŋ n-ti Gandhara, Turkic king Fromo Kesaro ("Caesar of Rome") ni daa gbubi shɛli,[lower-alpha 2] ŋun daa deemba zaŋ n-ti Kingdom of Khotan bin din gbaai 8th century CE sunsuun.[15][lower-alpha 3] Lahabali din yina Bon wuhiya ni Kesar nyɛla yuli zaŋ n-ti Naa bee ŋun gbubi tiŋgbani.[16] Tibetan lahabali zaŋ kpa "epic" ŋɔ wuhiya ni Naa so bɛn boli Phrom Ge-sar bee Khrom Ge-sar nyɛla Naa zaŋ n-ti yaɣa anahi, yuli ŋɔ nyɛla din daa piligi 10th century[17] ka Phrom/Khrom mi daa kpalim Iranian (*frōm-hrōm) zaŋ n-ti Rūm/Rome. Lala eastern Iranian bachi ŋɔ nyɛla din dɔ Middle Chinese bachi (Eastern) Rome (拂菻, Fólín) nyaaŋa kamani Byzantium (phrōm-from<*phywət-lyəm>).[lower-alpha 4][18]

A. H. Francke daa tɛhi la Tibetan yuli Gesar nyɛla din yina Sanskrit. S.K. Chatterji, din daa niŋ ka o piligi o tuma ka o daa baŋ ni "Ladakh variant of Kesar", Kyesar din be Classical Tibetan Skye-gsar gbunni nyɛ 'labi dɔɣi bee yoli dɔɣi', ka Gesar/Kesar din be Tibetan kamani din be Sanskrit wuhiri '"anther bee pistil of a flower" , Sanskrit kēsara gbunni kēsa' (hair) nyɛ Indo-European.[19]

Gesar mini Kingdom of Ling[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Tibet, din wuhiri Gesar taarihi nyɛla din mali bɔhisi. (Samuel 1993, p. 365) (Lǐ Liánróng 2001, p. 334) baŋdi shɛba ban be ni nyɛla ban ŋmɛ nangban kpeeni ni bɛ daa dɔɣi o la yuuni 1027, lahabali din yina 19th-century chronicle, the Mdo smad chos 'byung by Brag dgon pa dkon mchog bstan pa rab. [20] Ka "episode" shɛŋa nyɛ din wuhiri Tibetan taarihi: din daa niŋ ka bɛ tee king Songtsän Gampo's Chinese nabi'puɣiŋga Wencheng kpuɣibu yuuni 641.[21] Baŋdiba nyɛla ban mali o pahiri Golok,[lower-alpha 5] tiŋ din be Dotō mini Domé sunsuun,[lower-alpha 6]bee Markham, Tanak, Öyuk bee tiŋ'kpaŋ zaŋ n-ti Panam din be Nyang River.[22] Amaa "epic" nyɛla bɛn daa yiinda shɛli Tibetan-speaking regions, ni Kham mini Amdo,[23] Tibetan balli puuni, gling gbunni nyɛla "island".[24]

Notes[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

  1. Samuel 1993, pp. 68–9.
  2. Samuel 2005, p. 166.
  3. Chadwick & Chadwick 1940, pp. 48–9,215–6.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Maconi 2004, p. 372.
  5. Jiàngbiān Jiācuò 1998, p. 222.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Maconi 2004, p. 373.
  7. Dwyer 2007, pp. 75–76.
  8. Penick 2009, p. vii.
  9. Herrmann 1990, p. 485.
  10. Harvilahti 1996, p. 40.
  11. Harvilahti 1996, p. 43.
  12. Harvilahti 1996, p. 42.
  13. Kornman 2005, pp. 360,367.
  14. Samuel 2005, p. 177.
  15. Maconi 2004, p. 374.
  16. Martin 2011, p. 127.
  17. Samuel 2005, pp. 170,177.
  18. Needham 1988, p. 186 note g.
  19. Francke 2000, p. xxii.
  20. Lǐ Liánróng 2001, p. 328.
  21. Samuel 2005, p. 175.
  22. Shakabpa 2010, p. 193.
  23. Maconi 2004, p. 472.
  24. Rinbochay, Sö-nam-drak-ba & Rinbochay 1997, p. 39.

Citations[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Sources[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

| first = Joseph
| year = 1988
| author-link = Joseph Needham
| orig-year = First published 1954
| publisher = Cambridge University Press
| volume = 1
| url = https://books.google.com/books?id=F3ngtgAACAAJ
| isbn = 0-521-05799-X
}}

External links[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

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