Chan Chan

Diyila Dagbani Wikipedia
Yiɣi chaŋ yaɣa shɛli Yiɣi chaŋ vihigu ni
Chan Chan
archaeological site, tinzuɣu
Di pilli ni850 Mali niŋ
Zuliya wuhibuChan Chan Mali niŋ
KaliChimú culture Mali niŋ
TiŋaPeru Mali niŋ
Capital ofChimor, Chimú culture Mali niŋ
Din be shɛli polonaTrujillo, La Libertad department, Trujillo province Mali niŋ
Dini be shɛliHuanchaco Mali niŋ
Tiŋgbaŋ yaɣili calinli8°6′38″S 79°4′30″W Mali niŋ
Significant eventlist of World Heritage in Danger Mali niŋ
Heritage designationUNESCO World Heritage Site, cultural heritage of Peru Mali niŋ
Lahabaya dundɔŋ din mali dihitabilihttp://www.chanchan.gob.pe Mali niŋ
World Heritage soliWorld Heritage selection criterion (i), World Heritage selection criterion (iii) Mali niŋ
Map

E-Class

Chan Chan n daa nyɛ tiŋ karili Columbian tuuli saha South America yaɣili.[1] Di pa nyɛla tandi mɛbu shee

n-be La Libertad yaɣili 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) Trujillo, Peru wwulinluhili polo.[2]Chan Chan bela Moche Valley nangbangbriŋ.[3] Dini n-daa nyɛ Chimor tinzuɣu yuuni 900 zaŋ chaŋ yuuni 1470,[4]bɛ ni daa nyaŋ ba ka zaŋba pahi Inca Empire la.[5]Chimor,bɛ ni fa tingbani shɛli,[6]din pili Chimúr culture ka da mɛ n dolisi Peruvian coast 900AD saha.[7] Chan Chan nyɛla din be bopiɛligu ni Northern Peru.[8] Di ni niŋ ka saa bɛ miri ni la zuɣu, Chan Chan nima ni nyɛri ko'shɛli ka di ka yɛlim yirila ko'zorili din yirina Andes.[9] Chan Chan mali la tingbani din galisim nyɛ 20 km² ka di tiŋkarili su 6 km² din extravagant ciudadelas.[10] Ciudadelas bɛ ni mɛ shɛli zaɣi kara ka di mali plazas,nema soŋbu sheei, nsheema soɣibu shei.[11] ciudadelas ŋɔ wuhiri la nanima zaashee.[12] Ban pa yuya nima Chan Chan tingbani puuni nyɛla bɛ ni lahi mi shɛli ni small, irregular agglutinated rooms (SIARs).[13] Lala SIARS ŋɔ nyɛla bɛ ni daa mali shɛba niŋdi workshops.[14] Bɛ ni daa zaŋ shɛli baŋ Chan Chan yaɣa daa nyɛla "Figure 1: Archaeological Zone of Chan Chan" from Michael West's article, "Community Settlement Patterns at Chan Chan, Peru".[15] Yaɣili ŋɔ ni tooi nya ka dama,Verlarde, Laberinto, ni Bandelier n laɣindi tiri nortern border of Chan Chan ka Uhle, Chaiguac, Tschudi, ni Rivero tiri toondini polo (southern) flanks.[16] Luɣishɛli di ni pii ti la'a yaɣa ŋɔ bela tiŋa maa sunsuuni ka di zaani tiri Chan Chan tingbani sunsuuni.

Etymology[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Di yuli ŋɔ yina mi Quingnam "Jiang" bee "Chang" ka di gbunni nyɛ Sun, ka Chan-Chan gbunni nyɛ: Sun-Sun. Vihigu wuhiya ni di gbuuni ni yɛlimaŋli yɛn nyɛla:Great sun, resplendent Sun, splendid sun or refulgent sun (pirimila Quingnam yɛltɔɣa wuhiya ni yi ti niɣim zaɣ'bobigu din gbunni taɣirimi ). Vihigu shɛli lahi wuhiya ni tooi lahi yina bachi din nyɛ Shian bee Sian. "Shi" kukoli lɛbigili mi ni goli mini "An" ka di zani ti yili, ka di gbunni nyɛ; goli yili, ka din wuhiri ni goli n daa nyɛ be bin jɛmda kpɛma.

Taarihi ŋmaa[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Di-hitabili bɛni ni Cha Chan nyɛla bini daa mɛ shɛli kamani 850 AD by the Chimú.[17] Di daa nyɛla Chimor tiŋbɔbigu tiŋzuɣu ka mali daa dam bɛilihgu puɣisibu ka maa 40,000–60,000.[18]

Inca ni daa tuhi-deei Chimú ka maa 1470 AD, Chan Chan daa pili la nyaangi labu.[19] Yuuni 1535 AD, Francisco Pizarro daa kpa Spanish tiŋzuɣu n-ti Trujillo ka di daa maan daa Chan Chan kpɛ nyaanga.[20] Di mini din daa lan pa tiŋzuɣu titali ŋɔ, Chan Chan daa na ku nyɛla bini mi tiŋ shɛli ka di mali ariʒichi ka ku nyɛla Spaniards nim ni fari saha shɛli kam.[21] Kotɔmsi din wuhiri Chimú ariʒichi ŋɔ nyɛla din be sixteenth-century nema yuya bini daa fa ka di nyɛla kum soɣibu sheei Chan Chan; ariʒichi din paai salima 80,000 pesos ka be  daa labi deeli ($5,000,000 US dollars dii nyɛ salima).[22] Yuuni 1969, Michael Moseley mini Carol J. Mackey daa piliga n-gbiri bɔri daadaa binkura Chan Chan; zuŋɔ, laa gbi m bɔ daadaa binkuramaa nyɛla din tuɣi m be  Peruvian Instituto Nacional de Cultura sulinsi ni.[23]

Di gulibu soya[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Yuuni 1998, "Master Plan for Conservation and Management of the Chan Chan Archeological Complex" ,

Freedom National Culture Institute zaŋti Peru n daa buɣisili ka World Heritage Foundation – WHR, ICCROM, mini GCI zaŋ bɛ nuu pahi. Ka Peruvian gɔmnanti daa saɣiti li.[24] so shɛŋa bɛ ni kpuɣi ni di guli n-nyɛ bɛ labi kpaŋsili ka lahi ba di mɛhi ŋɔ zali ka dambu kani ni nti gili Tschudi Palace, ka di nyɛla be zaŋla be maŋmaŋ baŋsim mini saha ŋɔ baŋsim tum di tuma.[25] Chan Chan luɣa din saɣim ni nimmohi saha ŋɔ nyɛla pihinahi ni ayɔbu 46 , amaa di zaa saɣimbu yi laɣim taba di gari lala luɣa ŋɔ. Lala yaɣili ŋɔ gɔmnanti zaŋti La Libertad n nyɛ ŋun diri liɣiri niŋdi di malibu ni.

UNESCO World Heritage Site[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Silimin goli 28 November yuuni 1986, UNESCO daa pii la Chan Chan ka di niŋ World Heritage Site[26] ka lahi kali li pahi World Heritage din mali barina ni. World Heritage nangbanyini laɣingu nima tuuli tiɛha daa nyɛla be nibyɛn niŋ shɛm guli, ka labi neeli, ni bɛ ni yɛn gbubi li shɛm; ka yihi binshɛŋa din yɛn chɛ ka di bɛ niŋ nyɛvuli ni. Pan-American bohimbu zaŋ chaŋ mɔɣu guli mini Management of Earthen Architectural and Archaeological Heritage nyɛla yaɣa pam ni daa laɣim zaŋ be kpalanzuya n-gbuni taba diri laɣiri niŋda, n-ti pahi ICCROM, Getty mɔɣu gubu nima, ni Peru gɔmnanti.

Archeologist nyela ban kpuɣi soya dabam dabam ni bi tooi ku ka taɣi tiŋgbani maa. bi nyɛla ban ku be moli ni, ni bi bo sa pɔbirigu m pili dikpina maa, din yen che ka saa ku bu wurim ŋa. Bi lahi nyela ban bori ni bi ŋma ko soya n gili din yen che ka sakom tooi zori n yiri tiŋ maa ni yomyom.

Archeological site[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

↵Di ni mɛ n deei poli shɛli paai 20 square kilometers, Vihigu wuhiya ni dini n-nyɛ tiŋ titali America polo ka leei do buyi dunia zaa

Di kpuna din laɣim taba titi lala tiŋ'titali ŋɔ n-nyɛ:

Old name Current name Meaning
Chayhuac Chayhuac An or Quixmic An Chayhuac House or Beginning House
Uhle Xllangchic An East House or Sunrise House
Laberinto Fechech An West House or Sunset House
Gran Chimú Utzh An Big House
Squier Fochic An North House
Velarde Ñing An Sea House
Bandelier Ñain An Birds House
Tschudi Nik An Center House
Rivero Chol An New House or Final House
Tello Tsuts An Small House

Yu kuri gbunni saha ŋɔ yuli gbunni Chayhuac Chayhuac An bee Quixmic An Chayhuac House bee yili din piina Uhle Xllangchic An toondini yili bee Sunrise House Laberinto Fechech An West House or Sunset House Gran Chimú Utzh An Big House Squier Fochic An North House Velarde Ñing An Sea House Bandelier Ñain An Birds House Tschudi Nik An Center House Rivero Chol An New House or Final House Tello Tsuts An Small House Walled compound Nik An (Ex Tschudi) "Nik An" n nyɛ kpɛma din zaani kom zaani, mɔɣili zaani, ni cult din gili li Chimu culture ni. Din soŋdi dikpuna ŋɔ pam zani mi ti zahim , ka di tiriti tuduu polo ni toondini (din ni tooi buɣisi kamani di zani ti yaɣa ayi din wuhiri Peruvian teeku noli: ni Humboldt, maasim, din yirina toondini ni El Niño yini, tulim, din yirina tuduu polo), waves, rombito (fishing nets), ni pelicans mini anzumitos (mixture of sea lion and otter).Chimucapac ŋun daa nyɛ zaa lana n daa su lala teeku noli tiŋa ŋɔ, ka talahi nangbanyini daa beni zaŋ kana niriba laɣim mali ni kom gulibu viɛnyɛla, ni varisigu din yiri shɛli polo na. "Nik An" complex mali la duno yini ka di dikpuna waɣilim paai twelve meters di ni taɣili viɛnyɛla, ka daa mali gbunni yɛliŋ (five meters) din gari di summits (one meter), din yɛn niŋ ka tiŋgbani damli din yɛn yina teeku ni di bi nyaŋli.

Architecture/ Mɛbu[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Tiŋ maa nyɛla din mali ciuddadeals goma pia, din daa mali laɣinsi duri, niribi soɣibu shee, jɛma shee,kom toobu shee ni luɣ'sheŋa Chimu nanima ni da be.[27]Din pahi ciudadelas nim ŋo zuɣu,yaari shɛŋa din daa be Chan Chan n nyɛ, alikaali duri, bee audencias,[28] duri din pora ''smallirregular agglutinated rioms ( SIARs) ni pina shɛŋa dini daa booni haucas.[29]Shehira din wuhiri lala binyɛra ŋo tuma bee di talahi nyɛla din kuli be funerary ceramics shɛŋa bini daa nya Chan Chan.[30]

Anfooninima pam nyɛla din wuhiri mɛbu mɛbu din ŋmani audencias[30] din wuhiri mɛbu mɛbu ni nyɛ binshɛli Chimu nima ban beChan Chan ni tibgi.

N pahi, lala binyɛra ŋo mɛbu nyɛla din wuhi ni ni tumtumdibi daa nyɛla ban be Chan Chan. [30]Ŋoloŋo lahi nyɛla din kpaŋsiri shahira shɛli din yɛri Chan Chan niribi pubu pubu dama di daa zooya ka di nyɛ niribi ban tumdi tuma n daa kuli nyɛ ban niŋdi mɛbu mɛbu maa.[30]

Chan Chan nyɛla din nyɛ triangular, ka gooni din waɣilim nyɛ( 15-18m ) ni 50-60 foot nyɛ din gilli. [31]Kpɛbu shee daa ka di nuzaa zuɣu, dama gooni din daabe nuzaa zuɣu daa nyɛla wuntaŋ ni be shɛli pam, di zuɣu lala gooni ŋo daa kuli nyɛla din taɣiri pohim kpeeni ni wuntaŋa.Goon waɣili nyɛla din guri ka chɛri nudirigu wulinluhili pohim kpeeni din yirina moɣili maa gbini.Goma maa nyɛla bini zaŋ blookubihi mɛ, [11]ka bimbom binyɛra n pa di zuɣu.Bombu balibu buyi maa nyɛla ka bi kuli me binyɛra kamani ŋmana, zahim, ni binkobi bihi,bee ka bi bombom lala binyɛra ŋo.Bombu bee mɛbu din be Chan Chan nyɛla din wuhiri jeensi, meeŋa ni laŋ shɛŋa dini mali gbahiri kom ni binnɛma( kamani Spondylus.) . Chan Chan nyɛla din kuli miri Pacific Ocean.[32]

Irrigation[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Kom nyɛla be ni mali shɛli zali Chan Chan tiŋgbani. Yɛlimaŋli tiŋgbani maa memi tam kobilisi zuɣu, din ziliŋ daa nyɛ kamani napɔŋ yaabu pia ni anu.[33] Binyara din vori kom na "Moche" kulibɔŋ la ni na daa nyɛla bɛ ni mali shɛli din kuli yɛn che ka kukɔri din baɣi tiŋ maa pahi bee n niŋ galisim.[34] Lala ko vori mashina shɛŋa bɛ ni daa mali ŋɔ yi zani viɛnyɛlinga, tiŋgbani maa nu dirigu yaɣili ŋɔ na daa nyɛla ko kpɛɣu ni saɣim shɛli yuuni 1100 CE, din daa leegi ka di nyɛ yali kpaŋsiri li n zaŋ ti Chimu ni o lahi niŋ nimohi ni bɛ tiŋgbani maa yikɔnɔmi zaŋ jɛndi neein gahinda balantee kɔbu puuni.[35]

Dambu ( Threats)[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Chan Chan du meri kuranima ŋɔ daa nyɛla binsheɣu " erosion " ni dam ka di pala shɛli n tahili m pahila taɣibu taɣibu zaŋ chaŋ weather ni sa miri biɛɣu, kokpɛɣu mini ʒɛɣu din mali yaa. Tiŋgbani ŋɔ nyɛla binshɛɣu ʒɛɣu din nyɛ zaɣi timsili din yina El Niño ni damdi saha shɛli kam, din kpaŋsiri ko yɔra, maligim, guhihu ni din kam pahi di zuɣu n ti pahi ko kpɛɣu din be Peruvian bɔbili la zuɣu. Chan Chan nyɛla tiŋ kari shɛli din mali bayaɣiti anduniya yaangi zuɣu, n ti pahi di neein ŋmara din tahi zaŋsim zaŋ chaŋ di polo. El Niño polo sa kara ŋɔ nyɛla din saɣim Chan Chan du mera ŋɔ mɛhi. Pahibu zaŋ chaŋ saa mibu polo gba nyɛla binshɛɣu din pahiri gulisigu din be pɔhim puuni ( humidity), dii yi lahi niŋ ka gulisigu ŋɔ laɣim n ti doni lala du mera ŋɔ gbunni, yalim saɣimbo n ti pahi tihi ni mɔri zoosim gba nyɛla din ni tooi niŋ tabbata, ka Chan Chan viɛlim zaŋ chaŋ di jilima polo saɣim bee ka di gbarigi. Tiŋgbani duɣili ( global warming ) yi ti niŋ kamani shɛba ni pun buɣisi la, di yan kpaŋsila lala niŋsim biɛri ŋɔ, jina lahi toya n wuhiri ni taɣibu zaŋ chaŋ climate puuni gba kpaŋsiri ko yɔra, guhigu, maligim ni dim kam pahi.

Tumtumdiba ni niriba[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Chan Chan daa nyɛla luɣi shɛli tumtumdiba ni niribi balibu ni daa be. Bi daa nyɛla ban be classist society, bini daa kuli pu niriba ka nanima bee fukumsi nima bee fukumsinima ni buɣa be zuɣusaa ka bidiribi nyɛ ban daa kuli do gbunni. Tiŋ maa daa nyɛla din mali tarimba, pukpariba, daabihi, daba ni ban pahi. Bi daa mali baŋsimnima pam tiŋ maa ni ka bi nyɛ ban daa niŋdi tani viɛla, yaɣiri duɣu, ni ceramics.[36]

Chimu sabiila na daa nyɛla bandihitabili ni wuntaŋa daa nyɛla din nam gala dibaata, salma zaŋti toondana ni ban daa kuli be zuɣusaa, silver daa nyɛla din nyɛ toodanima ŋo paɣibi dini ka copper mii nyɛ nivuɣ'shɛba ban ka yaɣa ayi ŋo puuni shɛlu dini.Elitenima n daa nyɛ ban be citadels. Sabiilanima ban kpalim daa nyɛla ban be yi bihi ni din daa lan nyɛ luɣ'shɛli bini tumdi bi tuma.[37]

Di bahi bahindi bi daa nyɛla pukpari tiŋa,Chimu niribidaa nyɛla bankuli niŋdi bi yaɣiri tuma viɛnyɛla kalahi niŋdi bi tana viɛnyɛla, binshɛli zuɣu bini daa miba. Bi daa nyɛla ban tuma daa viɛlipam, kadi shɛŋa na kuli biɛni saha ŋo.[37]

Mɛbu din be tiŋ maa ni[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Chan Chan nyɛla din mali mɛbu balibu pam, ka di pam nyɛ din saɣim. Mɛbu maa pam daa nyɛla jɛma duri, yiya, ni kuya malibu shɛhi. Mɛbu maa pam daa nyɛlã din mali bombu din ŋmahindiri moɣili maa, kamani zahim, kopali, ŋmana ni din pahi. Chimunima ni daa niŋ paliti maa shɛm daa nyɛla din mali lahiʒiba pam. Bi daa nyɛla bam mɛ binshɛli bini mɛri maa ka di kuli nyɛ zaɣ'moɣiliŋ n shɛbi pali bili ni .[38]

Tiŋ maa daa nyɛla din mali citafel pia, amaa dibaa anhi ko n nyɛ bini nyɛ shɛli Ŋoloŋo wuhirimi ni Chan Chan tiŋ daa nyɛla din mali toodanima pia, Chimunima daa nyɛla ban kuli zaɣisiri ''Great Lord on top''. Tiŋ maa kali daa nyɛla dini puri niriba, ka nanima ni buŋa daa nyɛ din be zuɣusaa ka kuli siriga hali ti paagi daba ban daa kuli nyɛ ban do gbinni. Citadel ŋo daa zooya ka di waɣilim nyɛ 40 feet ka nyɛ bini daa kuli mɛri shɛli ka di mali duuno yini. Di daa bɛmi ka nayili la ka mali binyɛra din kuli viɛligiri li ka daa nyɛ bini mɛri binshɛli tiri ''buɣili bee toondana''.[39]


Adiini ni kali[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Chimu daa malila citadel pia. Tschudi nyɛ shɛli dini kuli che ka niribi kpera di zaa puuni. Bi dihitabili ni Tschudi daa nyɛla dini mɛ shɛli nti Chimu God of the Sea ''Ni''ŋoloŋo nyɛla dini dihi shɛli tabili dama niribi bee binyɛra din dalim moɣili maa nyɛla din zoogi di puuni. Kuli boŋ daa nyɛla din be di sunsuni, bini daa zaŋdi shɛli niŋdi adiini binyɛra bee laɣinsi, doɣim nyɛbu ni ko shɛli dini jɛmda.Binshɛli Chimu niribi ni jɛmdi pam nyɛla moɣili maa, bi nyɛla ban kuli miri Pacific Ocean ka nyɛ ban nyɛri bi bindira pam moɣili maa ni. Bi daa lahi nyɛlaban zoogi ka bi vori kom moɣili maa ni n tumdi bi pukarilim tuma ,lala ŋo zuɣu bi daa dihi tabili ni bi ni jɛmdi buɣili ŋun be moɣili maa ni nyɛla din daa niŋ talahi pam.[39]

Chan Chan niribi daa nyɛla ban toɣisiri ''Mochica''balli. Dini daa niŋ ka Inca nim deegi tiŋ maa, lala balli daa nyɛla dini daa kuli yihi shɛli ka pumpoŋo gba di nyɛ bali shɛli niribi ni lahi mili. Sabbu biɛla n kuli nyɛ dini sabi shɛli wuhiri Mochica balli. Ka ti ka tini yɛn doli so shɛli wuhi lala balli ŋoni daa yɛri sham. Chimu sabiilanima daa nyɛla ban ka sabbu so shɛŋa bini daa zaŋdi sabiri kpari bi balli polo.

Di daa pala ban kuli ka sabbu soli nti bi balli maa, bi daa lahi nyɛla ban ka sabbu soya din wuhiri binyɛra zahimbu. Ayi lihi Chan Chan anfooni, a ni nyɛ bini kuli mɛ bi yiya maa dili soli ka polo kuli be di sunsuuni. Di bahi bahindi bi daa ka sabbu ŋo, bi daa yɛliya ni bi daa sabiri soŋda ka bolli Khipus din daa kuli be ka Inca. Kipus daa nyɛla sabbu din daa mali knotted cords. Khipus daa lahi nyɛla bini daa naan too zaŋ binsɛli di alizama.[40]

Amali Niiya ni a Chaŋ Chan Chan?[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Chan Chan nyɛla duuniya Adobe tinsi di galisi la puuni yini. Di miɛhi din viela mini di nachin tieri vielim ka zaŋbuɣisi ka kuli tu mi ni a maŋmaŋ chaŋ n ti nya. Amaa, nin lihi lihiriba ni ni tooi caŋ yaɣisheli kuli nyɛla bi ni booni sheli Nik An la. Tiŋgbani nahingbana taɣibu nyela wurim miɛhi/luɣi shaŋa din kpalim maa pam. ka naan yi che bi kpari sheŋa zali m mali niŋ di vihigu. Ani tooi zaŋ awa gaŋ sunsuuni n go n gili yaɣa sheŋa din yooi maa zaa. Di duundoli yori nyɛla din kuli be asama. To amaa, ayi bi mi tiŋ maa foɣa foɣa sheei di tumi ni a bo tour guide ɣun yen zaŋa n go n gili tiŋ maa ka tɔm nieegi a nini zaŋ chaŋ tiŋ maa polo.[41]

Chan Chan, archaeological site in La Libertad Region (Peru).

Lihi pahi[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]


External links[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]


Kundivihira[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

  1. https://books.google.com/books?id=UZTU3VD-UYwC&q=chan%2520chan&pg=PA7[permanent dead link]
  2. https://web.archive.org/web/20200422225254/https://www.smithsonian.com/
  3. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1739056
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doi_(identifier)
  5. Rowe, John (1948). "The Kingdom of Chimor". Acta Americana.
  6. https://doi.org/10.1126%2Fscience.187.4173.219
  7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)
  8. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JSTOR_(identifier)
  9. https://doi.org/10.7183%2F1045-6635.22.1.37
  10. https://doi.org/10.1126%2Fscience.187.4173.219
  11. 11.0 11.1 Moore, Jerry (2002). Encyclopedia of Prehistory. Human Relations Area Files, Inc.
  12. Moore, Jerry (2002). Encyclopedia of Prehistory. Human Relations Area Files, Inc.
  13. Moore, Jerry (2002). Encyclopedia of Prehistory. Human Relations Area Files, Inc.
  14. Moore, Jerry (2002). Encyclopedia of Prehistory. Human Relations Area Files, Inc
  15. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Antiquity
  16. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Antiquity
  17. "Chan Chan", Wikipedia (in English), 2022-10-18, retrieved 2022-12-07
  18. "Chan Chan", Wikipedia (in English), 2022-10-18, retrieved 2022-12-07
  19. "Chan Chan", Wikipedia (in English), 2022-10-18, retrieved 2022-12-07
  20. "Chan Chan", Wikipedia (in English), 2022-10-18, retrieved 2022-12-07
  21. "Chan Chan", Wikipedia (in English), 2022-10-18, retrieved 2022-12-07
  22. "Chan Chan", Wikipedia (in English), 2022-10-18, retrieved 2022-12-07
  23. "Chan Chan", Wikipedia (in English), 2022-10-18, retrieved 2022-12-07
  24. https://whc.unesco.org/document/135239
  25. https://doi.org/10.1201%2Fb15164-4
  26. http://www.rpp.com.pe/2012-11-23-chan-chan-la-ciudadela-de-barro-que-resiste-al-paso-del-tiempo-noticia_543097.html
  27. Moore, Jerry (2002). Encyclopedia of Prehistory. Human Relations Area Files, Inc.
  28. (1973) "USocio-Economic Organization of the Moche Valley, Peru, during the Chimu Occupation of Chan Chan".". Journal of Anthropological Researc: 275-295.
  29. Moore, Jerry (2002). Encyclopedia of prehistory. Human Relations Area Files Inc.
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