CFA franc

Diyila Dagbani Wikipedia
Yiɣi chaŋ yaɣa shɛli Yiɣi chaŋ vihigu ni
CFA franc
currency
Tiŋa53 Mali niŋ
Unit symbolFCFA Mali niŋ
Usage of:
  West African CFA franc (XOF)
  Central African CFA franc (XAF)

CFA franc (French: franc CFA, [fʁɑ̃ seɛfɑ], Franc din zani n-ti "Financial Community of Africa", din daa na nyɛ Franc n-ti French ni daa su tiŋ shɛŋa Africa tiŋgbani ni, bee "colloquially franc"; sabiri ŋmaa: F.CFA) nyɛla liɣiri yuli n-ti tiŋgbana dibaa ayi, West African CFA franc, ka tiŋgbana dibaa anii "West African countries" mali li n-kuri bukaata, n-ti pahi Central African CFA franc,din kuri bukaata Central African tiŋgbana dibaa ayɔbu.[1] Di mini di mali wɔliginsim maa zaa yoli, CFA franc liɣiri dibaa ayi ŋɔ nyɛla din diri doli taba ka tooi taɣiri n-tiri taba. ISO liɣiri dalinli nyɛla XAF din zani n-tiCentral African CFA franc n-ti pahi XOF din zani n-ti West African CFA franc. Silimiin goli 22 December 2019, bɛ daa moliya ni gbansabila tiŋgbana nyɛla bɛ ni yan taɣi shɛli ka yina ni bɛ maŋ maŋa liɣiri din za di gama zuɣu din nyɛ Eco.[2]

CFA franc nima ŋɔ taɣibu ni euro za la luɣ'yini,euro: €1 = F.CFA 655.957 zuɣu ni.

Bukaata[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

CFA francs nyɛla din diri tiŋsi pia ni anahi ni: tiŋsi pia ni ayi ban daa be France sulinsi ni West mini Central Africa (gbaa yihiGuinea mini Mauritania nuu, ban daa yihi bɛ nuu), n-ti pahi Guinea-Bissau (ban daa na be Portuguese sulinsi ni), n-ti pahiEquatorial Guinea (din daa na be Spanish sulinsi ni). Lala tiŋsi ŋɔ zaa ninsali biɛlim kalinli nyɛla 193.1 miliyɔŋ (zaŋ kana yuuni 2021),[3] mini GDP din laɣim US$283.0 biliyɔŋ (zaŋ kana yuuni 2021).[4]

Evaluation[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Liɣiri ŋɔ nyɛla bɛ ni galim ka feei shɛli zaŋ chaŋ di ni mali plaŋ n-ti French West Africa tiŋgbana din na bɔri zoobu ka di mi ku tooi niŋ pirim la CFA's danko ni chaŋ ti tabili euro (European Central Bank ni su laɣ'shɛli zalisi).[5] Shɛba bi saɣiti li ka ŋmɛ nangbankpeeni ni CFA "soŋdi mi ka "Franc Zone" tiŋgbana liɣir za yim ka lahi soŋdi aʒia nima taɣi ti taba France mini di tiŋgba din tumda".[6] European Union maŋ maŋa vihigu zaŋ jɛndi CFA zaŋ mi gɔhi euro, din daa niŋ yuuni 2008, ka no n-chibi ni "di yan mali la soŋsim n-ti CFA franc zone tiŋgbana, ka kpaŋsi yɛla pam m-pahi, " amaa din lahi pahi "di zaŋ gɔhi French franc ni, tum yuuni 1999, zaŋ gɔhi euro taɣibu din lahi lu n-ti daabiligu yaɣili din na zoori a".[7]

Yuli[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Bini din gbaai yuuni 1945 mini yuuni 1958, CFA daa zanin-ti "Colonies françaises d'Afrique" ("French ni daa su gbaŋsabila tiŋgbani shɛŋa"); n-ti pahi "Communauté française d'Afrique" ("French Community din zani n-ti Africa") yuuni 1958 ( French Fifth Republic piligu) mini lala gbaŋsabila tiŋsi ŋɔ maŋsulinsi deebu yuuni 1960s piligu.[1] Tum maŋsulinsi deeibu nyaaŋa, CFA zani mi n-ti Communauté Financière Africaine (African Financial Community),[8] amaa zaŋ ku bukaata ni nimmohi puuni, lala bachi ŋɔ ni tooi mali gbunni dibaa ayi (lihimi tuma du zuɣiri din do gbunni ŋɔ).

Taarihi[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Nambu[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

CFA franc daa namla silimiin goli 26 December 1945, n-ti pahi CFP franc. di nambu daa bi yi shɛli pahila French franc ni daa doni tiŋa World War II nyaaŋa. France daa saɣiti Bretton Woods Agreement silimiin goli December 1945, French franc daa doni la tiŋa ni di tooi zani taɣibu luɣ'yini n-ti US dollar. Laɣ'pala daa nam ya n-ti French ni daa su tiŋgbani shɛŋa din yan faai li ka che di tiŋgbani ni donibu ŋɔ, ka di tooi lahi niŋ alaha n-ti ba zaŋ chaŋ France aʒia nima ʒi n-kuna (ka tooi niŋ tɔm n-tiba ni tiŋgbani nɛma yi n-kpe France).[9] René Pleven, the French Minister of Finance, yɛltɔɣa daa yaai ya yɛra:

In a show of her generosity and selflessness, metropolitan France, wishing not to impose on her far-away daughters the consequences of her own poverty, is setting different exchange rates for their currency.

Taɣibu dubu mini sheebu[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

CFA franc daa nammi ka di taɣibu za luɣ'yini n-ti French franc. Lala taɣibu dubu mini sheebu daa taɣi la buyi ko, yuuni 1948 n-ti pahi yuuni 1994 (ni French franc liɣiri dalinli piibu yuuni 1960 n-ti pahi Euro yuuni 1999).

Taɣibu chandi:

  • 26 December 1945 zaŋ chaŋ 16 October 1948 – F.CFA 1 = 1.70 French franc. 70 centime zaɣi maŋli n-daa tahi CFA franc nambu na, din daa faai French ni su gbaŋsabila tiŋgbani shɛŋa liɣiri danko silimiin goli December 1945 (pɔi ni silimiin goli December 1945, 1 tiŋgbani franc lala tiŋsi ŋɔ ni daa nyɛla 1 French franc).
  • 17 October 1948 zaŋ chaŋ silimiin goli 31 December 1959 – F.CFA 1 = 2 French francs (CFA franc daa doli la French franc's danko lubu mini US dollar silimiin goli January 1948, amaa silimiin goli 18 October 1948, French franc danko daa lahi lu tiŋa ka CFA francdaa lahi labi du zuɣusaa n-ti French franc ni di kari gbaai lubu din jɛndi French franc; silimiin goli October 1948 nyaaŋa, CFA daa doli French franc tiŋa lubu)
  • 1 January 1960 zaŋ chaŋ 11 January 1994– F.CFA 1 = NF 0.02 (1 January 1960: French franc daa taɣi kalinli dalinli, ka 100 francs taɣi franc pali yini)
  • 12 January 1994 zaŋ chaŋ silimiin goli 31 December 1998– F.CFA 1 = F 0.01. "An overnight 50% devaluation".
  • 1 January 1999 zaŋ chana – F.CFA 100 = €0.152449 or €1 euro = F.CFA 655.957. (1 January 1999: euro daa yina n-ti zani n-ti FRF ni taɣibu 6.55957 FRF zaŋ ti 1 euro)

1960 mini 1999 laɣinsi daa che bɛla ni di taɣi France liɣiri din bɛni: CFA franc danko mini French franc/euro daa taɣi la yuuni 1948 mini yuuni 1994 ko.

Tiŋgbana din diri Franc taɣibu[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Saha zuɣu ni, tiŋgbana mini yaɣ'shɛŋa din diri CFA franc daa taɣ'ya di ni daa niŋ ka bɛ maani bɛ maŋ maŋa liɣiri. Gbansabila tiŋgbani shɛŋa mi daa saɣiti CFA franc tum di yibu na saha, ka di shɛŋa na ʒini be French sulinsi ni.

European Monetary Union[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Yuuni 1998, shili zaŋ n-ti Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union, Council of the European Union daa gbaai liɣiri shaawara ni France zaŋ n-ti CFA Zone mini Comoros ka zali zalisi ni:

  • Lala laɣingu ŋɔ ka taɣibu shɛli zaŋ chaŋ liɣiri mini Eurozone nɛma
  • Di tiŋgbana ni zalisi saha ŋɔ, laɣingu ŋɔ ka niya ni di labisi tiŋgbani shɛli daabiligu nyaaŋa labbu
  • Taɣibu zaŋ chaŋ shaawara din bɛni bi yan taɣi European Central bee tiŋgbani banki shɛli tuma central bank
  • French liɣiri soŋbu yan zali la taɣibu din za yim ni yoli n-ti euro n-ti pahi CFA mini Comorian francs
  • French kpamba shɛba bɛ ni dihi n-tabili n yan gbubi European Commission, European Central Bank mini Economic and Financial Committee yan yɛli la komitii maa taɣibu zaŋ chaŋ euro mini CFA ti pahi Comorian francs
  • Taɣibu kam din yan niŋ yan nyɛla Council saɣiti shɛli.

Criticism and replacement in West Africa[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Ban galim di ka feeri yɛliya ni "French treasury" ni su shɛli yiko, ka gbansabila tiŋgbana liɣiri pam yiri kpɛri France n-gari bɛ ni nyari soŋsim shɛli.[1] Silimiin goli January 2019, Italian ministers daa zilisi France ni bɛ duhiri la Africa CFA franc. Amaa, CFA franc galimbu, din yirina African organizations, daa tuɣiya. Silimiin goli 21 December 2019, tiŋgbani zuɣulana Alassane Ouattara zaŋ ti Ivory Coast n-ti pahi Emmanuel Macron tiŋgbani zuɣulana n-ti France daa moli niya zaŋ chaŋ bɛ taɣi West African CFA Franc ka Eco zani bɛ zaani. Dini kuli chana, West African CFA franc taɣibu daa pili ya. Silimiin goli May 2020, French National Assembly daa gbaai ya ni bɛ yihi bɛ nuu ka chɛ West African CFA franc. Tiŋgbana ban diri lala liɣiri ŋɔ bi lahi yan soŋ bɛ mini tiŋduya ni taɣi taba shɛli French Treasury. West African CFA franc mali la niya ni di taɣi yuli "Eco" yuma din kani na.[12][13]

Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) niriba lahi be la UEMOA, niya zaŋ chaŋ bɛ maŋ maŋa liɣiri malibu zaŋ chaŋ yuuni 2027, din yuli yan nyɛ eco.[14][15]

Tuma du zuɣuri[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Liɣiri dibaa ayi m-bɛni ka di yuli booni CFA franc: West African CFA franc (ISO 4217 liɣiri kalinli dalinli XOF), ka Central Africa CFA franc (ISO 4217 kalinli dalinli XAF). Di wɔligiri mi ni French ni dalinli CFA gbunii. Lala CFA francs dibaa ayi ŋɔ mali la taɣibu yim ni euro (1 euro = 655.957 XOF = 655.957 XAF), ka French treasury (Trésor public) saɣiti di zaa, amaa West African CFA franc bi diri Central African tiŋgbana ni, ka Central Africa CFA franc gba bi diri West African tiŋgbana ni.[1]

West African[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

West African CFA franc coins

West African CFA franc (XOF) nyɛla bɛ ni booni shɛli French puuni ni Franc CFA, luɣ'shɛli CFA ni zani n-ti Communauté financière d'Afrique ('Financial Community of Africa') bee Communauté Financière Africaine ("African Financial Community").[16] BCEAO (Banque Centrale des États de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, i.e., "Central Bank of the West African States") n yihiri li na, din be Dakar, Senegal, din zani n-ti UEMOA (Union Économique et Monétaire Ouest Africaine, i.e., "West African Economic and Monetary Union") tiŋgbana dibaa anii:

Lala tiŋgbana dibaa anii ŋɔ zaa mali la ninsali biɛlim kalinli 134.7 miliyɔŋ (azaŋ kana yuuni 2021),[3] ni GDP din laɣim US$179.7 biliyɔŋ (zaŋ kana yuuni 2021).[4]

Central African[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Central African CFA franc coins

Central Africa CFA franc (XAF) nyɛla bɛ ni booni shɛli French puuni ni Franc CFA, luɣishɛli CFA ni zani nti Coopération financière en Afrique centrale ("Financial Cooperation in Central Africa"). BEAC (Banque des États de l'Afrique Centrale, i.e., "Bank of the Central African States") n ŋmari li, din be Yaoundé, Cameroon, n-ti CEMAC (Communauté Économique et Monétaire de l'Afrique Centrale, i.e., "Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa") tiŋgbana dibaa ayɔbu:

Lala tiŋgbana dibaa ayɔbu ŋɔ zaa mali la ninsali biɛlim kalinli 58.4 miliyɔŋ (zaŋ kana yuuni 2021),[3] ni GDP din yiɣisi US$103.3 biliyɔŋ (zaŋ kana yuuni 2021).[4]

Yuuni 1975, Central African CFA banki laɣ'gbaŋ daa yina ka mali tooni din yi di ko ka che tiŋgbana din be din ni m-pahi,ka di mini li nyaansi lee nyɛ yim, ka ŋmani euro laɣ'baligu.

Equatorial Guinea, Spanish ni daa su tiŋ'shɛli lala yaɣili ŋɔ zaa, ka piigi CFA yuuni 1984.

Anfooni nima yaɣili[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Lihimi m-pahi[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

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Kundivihira[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 (2020) "International Law and Monetary Sovereignty. The Current Problems of the International Mastery of the CFA Franc and the Crisis of Sovereign Equality.". African Review of Law and Critical Thinking 1 (1): 25–61. DOI:10.6084/m9.figshare.12808835.v3.
  2. West Africa renames CFA franc but keeps it pegged to euro. Reuters.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 United Nations, Population Division. World Population Prospects 2019 - Total Population - Both Sexes.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 IMF. World Economic Outlook Database - October 2021.
  5. "A strong currency like the CFA franc makes exports from the CFA-franc zone much more costly than they would ordinarily be and as a result economic growth suffers accordingly. Since most of the countries that use the currency are poor, mostly agricultural economies, this has put a stranglehold on their trade and made them overly dependent upon continuing, privileged access to French and, though them, European markets. That this effectively recreates a quasi-colonial trading relationship between France and its former African colonies that benefits France mightily has not been lost on observers. - See more at: http://afkinsider.com/41946/forex-africa-african-euro/#sthash.bAiuUVxB.dpuf", FOREX Africa: The CFA Franc aka The African Euro, By Jeffrey Cavanaugh AFKI Original Published: 12 February 2014, 02:11pm, http://afkinsider.com/41946/forex-africa-african-euro/#sthash.bAiuUVxB.dpuf
  6. Economic Integration and Development in Africa, Henry Kyambalesa, Mathurin C. Houngnikpo, p. 88
  7. The role of the euro in Sub-Saharan Africa and in the CFA franc zone, Economic papers 347, November 2008
  8. Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Communauté Financière Africaine franc; accessed 2008.12.05.
  9. (2019) "France à fric: the CFA zone in Africa and neocolonialism". Third World Quarterly 40 (6): 1064–1088. DOI:10.1080/01436597.2019.1585183.
  10. IEDOM/Banque de France - History, Historique des billets Archived 3 Silimin gɔli July 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  11. IEDOM/Banque de France Le mot du Directeur de l'agence de Mayotte Archived 27 Silimin gɔli January 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  12. Anonym. France officially announces the end of the CFA franc in West Africa - France 24 | tellerreport.com (en).
  13. Konkobo, Lamine (2017-08-30). "Africa's 'colonial currency' debate" (en-GB). https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-41094094.
  14. "West Africa: ECOWAS Heads of State Name Single Currency ECO". AllAfrica. https://allafrica.com/stories/201907010044.html.
  15. "West Africa regional bloc adopts new plans to launch ECO single currency in 2027". REUTERS. https://jp.reuters.com/article/ozatp-uk-westafrica-summit-currency-idAFKCN2DW060-OZATP.
  16. Présentation (fr). Central Bank of West African States.

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