Walls of Jerusalem

Diyila Dagbani Wikipedia
Yiɣi chaŋ yaɣa shɛli Yiɣi chaŋ vihigu ni
Walls of Jerusalem
Goondaa
Pahi laOld City of Jerusalem and its Walls Mali niŋ
Di pilli ni1535 Mali niŋ
TiŋaIsrael Mali niŋ
Din be shɛli polonaJerusalem Mali niŋ
Tiŋgbaŋ yaɣili calinli31°46′29″N 35°13′40″E Mali niŋ
Significant eventslighting Mali niŋ
Contraji ŋun su tumaSuleiman the Magnificent Mali niŋ
Heritage designationpart of UNESCO World Heritage Site Mali niŋ
Map

E-Class

Walls of Jerusalem Hebrew: חומות ירושלים, Arabic: أسوار القدس) gili la Jerusalem tiŋgbani (approx. 1 km2). Yuuni 1535, Jerusalem ni daa na be Ottoman Empire, Sultan Suleiman I daa zali la zaligu ni bɛ la mɛ goon wuruŋ maa. Yuma maa daa niŋla yuma anahi, 1537 zaŋ chaŋ 1541.[1][2] Yuun tuhili nikɔbisinu din daa garila (1,500 years), Jerusalem mapu kura ni ka a daa naan tooi nyɛ gooni ŋɔ.

Di dikpuna maa waɣilim nyɛla 4,018 meters (2.4966 mi), ka di dum nyɛ 12 meters (39.37 feet) ka di kpɛŋ nyɛ 2.5 meters (8.2 feet). Dikpuna maa mali la 34 "watchtowers" ni dunoya ayopɔin , ka binkura vihigu baŋdiba yooi duno bihi ayi.

Yuuni 1981, bɛ daa pahila Jerusalem goma ŋɔ, n dolisi tiŋ'kurili ŋɔ , n ti paai UNESCO World Heritage Site yuya.[3]

Pre-Israelite Tiŋ'puuni[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Jerusalem tiŋzuɣu nyɛla dikiya ni ko n gili n bɔri gubu tirili tum kurunbuna ha. Bronze Age sunsuuni, saha shɛli bini lahi mi baabuli bachi nim puuni ka di nyɛ Patriarchs saha, bini boli Jebus daa nyɛla bini mɛ shɛli Jerusalem southeastern hill, mita bɛla (50,000 square meters) amaa ka nyɛ bini gu shɛli pam. Di dikiya din kpalin na beni nyɛla din be Siloam Tunnel zuɣu zaa. Niels Peter Lemche nyɛla ŋun ŋmɛ zaɣisi Jebus baŋbu ni Jerusalem. N-yɛn saɣi ti o zaɣisuɣu ŋɔ, bachi kam din bi boli ni Jerusalem ka be ancient Near East zaŋ mi wuhi ni ti tiŋ titali ŋɔ nyɛla 'Jerusalem'. Gbana ŋɔ shɛrira nim din sabi dɔya n-nyɛ Amarna satarili din sabi wuhiri ni di yina la 14th century BCE, di pam daa nyɛla Abdi-Heba Jerusalem naa ni sabi ka boli Jerusalem la Urusalim (URU ú-ru-sa-lim) beei Urušalim (URU ú-ru-ša10-lim) (1330s BCE).[4] Amarna satarili puuni be bolili,  Beth-Shalem, Shalem yili.[5]

Israelite city (ca. 1000–587/86 BCE)[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Jewish nima taada ni yɛli shɛm, kamani di ni kahigi shɛm Tanakh puuni, Jerusalem na kuli nyɛla di Jebusite city naɣila David n-ti yiɣisi, ŋun daa tuhi deei Jebus, ka labi bɔli li City of David ka di piligi yɛligibu . O tiŋa maa daa nyɛla din be low southeastern hill, Old City area sambani ni. Solomon, ŋun daa nyɛ David's bi'dibiga, daa nyɛla ŋun mɛ tuuli jama duu n-tam zɔli zuɣusaa di be rising right ka be tiŋ'shɛli o ni daa di fali maa zuɣusaa , ka Mounti the Temple maa , ka ti naan yi yɛligu tiŋa maa gɔma din yɛn che gu ka taɣi Temple maa.

Temple shɛli din daa nyɛ tuuli maa saha, tiŋa maa gɔma daa nyɛla din yɛligi nti pahi northwest hill maa gba zuɣu, i.e. yaɣ'shɛli ti pumpɔŋɔ Jewish mini Armenian Quarter (Jerusalem) Quarters ni pa be pumpɔŋɔ.


Tiŋa maa zaa daa wurim mi yuuni 587/86 BCE Siege shɛli Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon ni gari shɛli tooni ka di niŋ maa saha.


Jewish postexilic city[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Babylonian captivity mini Persian conquest of Babylonia nima nyaaŋa, Cyrus II of Persia daa chɛmi ka Jews labi to kuli Judea nti mɛ Temple maa. Di mɛbu daa nyɛla din naai yuuni 516 BCE bee 430 BCE. Di saha, Artaxerxes I bee dii yi pa shɛli Darius II daa chɛmi ka Ezra mini Nehemiah labi chaŋ nti labi mɛ tiŋa maa gɔma maa lahi deei Judea sulinsi, din daa ti lahi zaŋ niŋ Yehud province sulinsi Persians nima sulinsi saha. Temple din daa pahiri ayi saha, balantee Hasmonean saha, tiŋa maa gɔma daa nyɛla din yɛligi ka labi mali, n-zaŋ pahi Josephus ni bolindi shɛli ni gooni din nyɛ tuuli gooni (the First Wall). Herod ŋun daa mali yaa daa nyɛla ŋun pahi Josephus ni bɔli shɛli ni gooni din pahiri ayi maa (the Second Wall ) zuɣu, din be luɣ' shɛli din be yaɣ' shɛli din be ti pumpɔŋɔ Jaffa Gate mini Temple Mount sunsuuni. Agrippa I (r. 41–44 CE) daa nyɛla ŋun daa ti pili gooni din pahiri ata (the third Wall) mɛbu saha shɛli , din daa mɛ n-naai Jewish–Roman Tɔbu din nyɛ tuuli maa piligu saha. Di goon'chɛri shɛŋa nyɛla din be ti pumpɔŋɔ luɣ' shɛli din miri Mandelbaum Gate gaasi teesa .

Aelia Capitolina and Byzantine Jerusalem[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

70 CE yuuni puuni, di ni daa niŋ ka Roman siege maa niŋ saha shɛli Jewish–Roman Tɔbu din daa nyɛ maa saha, gɔma daa kuli nyɛla din kuli yɛn dahim zaa. Jerusalem kuli yɛn be la ruins puuni saha din gari buyɔbu zuɣu (six decades) ka ka Goma din yɛn gu ka taɣiba din gari century nima ayi sunsuuni.

Pagan Roman city ŋɔ, Aelia Capitolina, din daa mɛ 130 nyaaŋa , ŋun daa mɛ li nyɛ; Emperor Hadrian, daa nyɛla din beni ka ka Goma din taɣiri. Century nima ayi shɛŋa nyaaŋa din beni ka ka goma, zaɣ'pala daa nyɛla din yiɣisi gili tiŋa maa zaa, di pa shɛli Emperor Diocletian ni daa be nam ni saha shɛli maa, saha shɛli 289 mini century maa lebigibu sunsuuni. Goma maa daa kuli nyɛla din labi mali zaa, Empress Aelia Eudocia n-daa nyɛ ŋun mali li saha shɛli bɛ ni daa kari o tahi Jerusalem (443–460).

Middle Ages[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Yuuni 1033, Eudocia nima ni daa me gooni shɛŋa maa pirigili daa nyɛla tiŋgbani damli ni wurim shɛli. Lala goma ŋɔ nyɛla binshɛɣu Fatimid ni tu ni o labi me. Lala Fatimids ŋɔ n nyɛ ninvuɣi so ŋun daa pun che wulin luhili yaɣa ŋɔ pirigili din pun gari. Din nim n nyɛ Mount Zion mini di choochinima n ti pahi wulin luhili-wulin puhili zoli ( David ya la ) ni Jewish nima la ʒiʒii ni taba din yiɣisi zani wulin luhili kum zoli la zuɣu. Shili malibu zaŋ jɛndi bɛ ni booni shɛba Crusader siege la yuuni 1099, lala goma ŋɔ daa nyɛla kpaŋsi ni yaa amaa biɛla n daa yi polo. Ŋme n deegi nasara ŋɔ daa tahi yɛltɔɣi goli shɛŋa na din doli labi me, kamani Saladin ni daa lahi ŋme n deegi nasara yuuni 1187. Yuuni 1202 hali ni yuuni 1212 Saladin ŋahin so ŋun yuli booni Al-Malik al-Mu'azzim 'Isa, ti soli ni tiŋ maa goma maa labi n me, amaa din nyaaŋa, yuuni 1219, o daa lahi niŋ yada ni binshɛɣu din daa niŋ maa baayan watchtowers pirigili daa pun me din ni goma la, ka di pala shɛli zuɣu, o daa zorila dabiɛm ni crusader nima ŋɔ ti di anfaani shɛŋa binyɛri shɛŋa bɛ ni daa tuhi deegi tiŋgbani maa neein maa ni chani ka ʒira.

Century dibaa ata din na yan kana bee din kanina, tiŋgbani maa yan zala lala ka goma kani n taɣiri li, Temple Mount / Haram ash- Sharif mini Citadel n yan nyɛ luɣishɛŋa ŋan yan kpalim.

Ottoman period[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

16th century puuni, Ottoman Empire ni daa be nam ni yaɣili maa saha shɛli maa, Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent daa nyɛla ŋun tiɛhi ni o labi mɛ tiŋa maa Goma tuui zaa, Gomamaa yaɣ'shɛŋa din daa guui yuun'kuribuna ha. Din daa mɛ n-niŋ circa puuni 1537–1541 yuuni, din nima n-nyɛ; Goma shɛŋa din beni zuŋɔ ŋɔ.

Qasr Jalud[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Ottoman gooni din be northwest yaɣili ŋɔ, archeologists nyɛla ban kpa tower karili, c.35×35 napɔŋ yaabu (metres), din tuu me 11th century puuni, Fatimid saha, din lu n zahim ti Franks nima la First crusade nima la bahigu yuuni 1099, Ayyubids daa lahi yɛligiya viɛnyalinga baayan Saladin's daa lahi tuhi deegi tiŋ maa yuuni 1187. Laribu puuni lala tower ŋɔ yuli n daa booni Qasr al-Jalud (Goliath's Tower), crusader nima ŋɔ gba mi li mi Turris Tancredi ( Latin for Tancred's Tower), baayan Tancred of Hauteville, Commander so ŋun troops taɣi Fatimid la gulinsi saha ŋɔ yuuni 1099 siege. Lala tower ŋɔ ni ti pahi tiŋ muni maa zaa goma daa saɣim ni saha shɛli Ottoman Turks ni daa me bɛ dina yuuni 1219 din gari la di ni daa niŋ ka Ayyubid tooni daantala ni Al-Mu'azzam Isa ni daa kpaɣi tiŋgbani maa zaa zuɣusaa.

Lihi pahi/See also[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Clifford Holliday, Mandate-period architect ŋun daa yina ni so maŋli zaŋti Jerusalem mini ni di tiŋa ŋɔ dinkpunkura labi zali.

Kundivihira[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

  1. Jerome Murphy-O’Connor (2008). The Holy Land: An Oxford Archaeological Guide from Earliest Times to 1700 Oxford Archaeological Guides. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-19-923666-4. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  2. http://www.antiquities.org.il/jerusalemwalls/hstry_12_eng.asp
  3. Report of the 1st Extraordinary Session of the World Heritage Committee
  4. Urusalim e.g. in EA 289:014, Urušalim e.g. in EA 287:025. Transcription online at "The El Amarna Letters from Canaan" Tau.ac.il. Retrieved 11 September 2010.; translation by Knudtzon 1915 (English in Percy Stuart Peache Handcock, Selections from the Tell El-Amarna letters (1920).
  5. See, e,g,, Holman Bible Dictionary, op. cit. supra.
  6. Josephus, De Bello Judaico (Wars of the Jews) v.iv.§ 2
  7. Building inscription commemorating the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem Accession number: IAA 1942-265
  8. Boas, Adrian J. (2001). "Physical remains of Crusader Jerusalem" Jerusalem in the Time of the Crusades: Society, Landscape and Art in the Holy City Under Frankish Rule. Routledge. pp. 69–70. ISBN 9781134582723. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  9. Tancred's Tower / Qasr Jalud (Goliath's Castle) Archived 2021-11-24 at the Wayback Machine Institute for International Urban Development (I2UD), accessed June 2020
  10. http://www.antiquities.org.il/jerusalemwalls/hstry_12_eng.asp
  1. Jerome Murphy-O’Connor (2008). The Holy Land: An Oxford Archaeological Guide from Earliest Times to 1700. Oxford Archaeological Guides. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-19-923666-4. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  2. http://www.antiquities.org.il/jerusalemwalls/hstry_12_eng.asp
  3. Report of the 1st Extraordinary Session of the World Heritage Committee
  4. "Walls of Jerusalem", Wikipedia (in English), 2022-11-27, retrieved 2022-12-07
  5. "Walls of Jerusalem", Wikipedia (in English), 2022-11-27, retrieved 2022-12-07