Culture of Africa

Diyila Dagbani Wikipedia
Yiɣi chaŋ yaɣa shɛli Yiɣi chaŋ vihigu ni
Culture of Africa
culture of an area
Yaɣ sheliculture of the Earth Mali niŋ
Facet ofAfrica Mali niŋ
Dunia yaɣiliAfrica Mali niŋ
The Great Pyramids of Giza, Egypt
Ancient Kano City Walls, Nigeria
Tingatinga is one of the most widely represented forms of paintings in Tanzania, Kenya and neighbouring countries

Culture of Africa nyɛla din mali balibu mini yaɣa pam, di laɣim la tiŋgbani bɔbigu mini balishɛŋa din beni ka mali nahingban gahinda Africa tiŋgbani ni. Ninsali nima balibu balibu m-be Africa n-ti pahi A firika nima ban yiri kpɛri luɣishɛŋa. Zaasa, kaya ni ta'ada nyɛla nahingban gahinda din laɣim taba ka salo mali li n tumdi tuma. Lala nima ŋɔ n-nyɛ zalisi,biɛhigu, dihitabili, baŋsim, nuuni tuunbaŋsim, niŋsim, nti pahi din kuli beni ka niriba niŋdi li bɛ tiŋgbani ni.[1] Africa nyɛla din mali zuliya nima pam ban nyɛ bilichini nima ka mali binyɛra din wɔligi ba kamani noli ni yɛltɔɣa, bindirigu, puhigu, n-ti pahi wahi. Amaa, Africa nima nyɛla ban laɣim mali kaya ni ta'ada pam ka di wɔligi Afirika kaya ni taɣada ka che dunia zaa dini. Kamani ŋmahinli, biɛhigu dariza, adiini, biɛhi suŋ, siyaasa dariza, bomma ni nyamma, n-ti pahi nuuni tuunbaŋsima zaa nyɛla din pahi nyɛ Afirika kaya ni taɣada.[2] Kaya ni taɣada wuhibu nyɛla din niŋ bayana Africa tiŋgbani ni, ni kaya ni taɣada balibu pam[3] din beni ka pa ni Afrika zaa amaa ka be tiŋgbani yini ni. Amaa di mini Africa kaya ni taɣaa nyɛla din mali balibu pam maa, yaha, a yi bɔhim li viɛyɛla, di nyɛla din mali nahingbana din ŋmani taba pam; kamani shɛhira, bɛ ni mali biɛhisuŋ shɛŋa, bɛ yurilim mini jilima zaŋ ti kaya ni taɣada, ni jilim shɛli bɛ ni mali n-tiri ninkura mini ninvuɣ-shɛba ban kpa talahi, kamani nazuɣiri mini nabihi.[4]

Africa nyɛla din taɣi ka tiŋgbana pam lahi taɣi li. Din bɔŋɔ ni tooi nyɛla suhuyurilim zaŋ chaŋ ʒemana yɛla pamla pii pahi ka di pani bɛ kuli zani mi n-ti yɛlikura din pun beni. Tiŋgbani shɛŋa kaya ni taɣada bela deebu, din jɛndi Amerika kaya ni taɣada mini Asori ni zaŋ shɛli na, daa nyɛla din kari Africa maŋ maŋa kaya ni taɣada, amaa di ni niŋ ka gbansabila yɛligiri maa, kaya ni taɣada neebu nyɛl din tali kalinli zuɣu. Africa tiŋgbana zuɣulan, nima pam nyɛla ban kpaŋsiri wahi mini binkumda ŋmɛbu laɣinsi,binkura biɛhisi shee mɛbu, ni nuuni tuunbaŋdiba mini sa sabiriba.[5] 90 zaŋ chaŋ 95% gbansabila kaya ni taɣada faya shɛŋa nyɛla din be tiŋduya binkura duri ni.[6] Di lahi kpa talahi ni ti gbaai chibi BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) yɛltɔɣa zaŋ chaŋ Africa kaya ni taɣada, “saha ŋɔ "Foresight Factory" bɔhimbu din jɛndi bini ni nyɛ shɛli bee nira ni nyɛ so, 50-60% "British black African/Caribbean" ban labisi, saɣiti ni ni zuliya nima nyɛla ban mali bukaata pam, bali din niriba galisi. Lihiri yini din nyɛ ‘black’ as an ‘identifier’ bee an ‘ethnicity’ pa la din wɔligiri kaya ni taɣada ko, di lahi nyɛla din mali wɔliginsim ni tiŋsi pam…. Ti yi mo ni ni ti kahigi Africa kaya ni taɣada mini din wuhiri li, di tu ni ti mi ti haŋkali ni ka dama ti lihirimi jɛndiri zuliya nima pam mini tiŋsi pam din bi bɔri ni bɛ faya mini kaya ni taɣada laɣim taba.[7]

Taarihi lihigu[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Sample of the Egyptian Book of the Dead of the scribe Nebqed, c. 1300 BC

Africa kaya ni taɣada nyɛla din pu bubɔbigu.[8][9][10] Tiŋgbani ŋɔ kaya ni taɣada labi nyɛ naba zani lahi nyɛla din pahi maŋsulinsi deebu nyaaŋa laɣingu gbansabila tiŋgbani ŋɔ ni, ni bɛ ni nya ka dama di mali bukaata ni bɛ zaŋ Africa kaya ni taɣada binyɛra niŋ afaani kamani shikuru baŋsim bɔbu, ni tiŋgbani soŋsim yaɣa pam. Saha ŋɔ, kaya ni taɣada zaŋ soŋ lɛbiginsim nyɛla din yee du polo.[11] "Roman colonization of North Africa" saha (Algeria yaɣ'shɛŋa, Libya, Egypt, ni Tunisia zaa), din baɣili kamani Tripolitania n-daa nyɛ ban tiri tiŋgbana ŋɔ zaa bindirigu. Din bɔŋɔ daa nyɛla din ti ba ariziki pam yuun kɔbisinahi shɛli bɛ ni daa zaŋ niŋ daabiligu maa.[12] Africa ni daa na be sulinsi ni saha shɛli, Europe nima daa mali la biɛhigu din mali jilima ka mali niya kara. Faransi nima daa saɣiri mi n-deeri gbansabinli ni o nyɛla Faransi nira di yi niŋ ka bɛ zaŋ gbansabila kaya ni taɣada n wuhiba ka deei Faransi nima ni bɔri shɛm. Di daa yi niŋ ka nira tooi mali Portuguese nima yɛltɔɣa yɛlibu baŋsim mini bɛ kaya ni taɣada ka che gbansabila dini n-daa wuhiri nira ninneesim.[13] Kenyan pɔhim zuɣu alizama dirili Mwiti Mugambi nyɛla ŋun yina ni nangban kpeeni, ni gbansabila dahinshɛli nyɛla bɛ ni ni tooi nam shɛli di yi niŋ ka bɛ saɣi nti ka mali saha ŋɔ kaya ni taɣada din beni. Mugambi ŋun sani, gbanpiɛla ni daa su gbansabila ka che kaya ni taɣada shɛŋa labi, sambani nima kaya ni taɣada yɛligibu, ni soŋsim tibu nyɛla, o ni ŋmɛ shɛli nangbankpeeni, nyɛla din yan che ka bɛ kpalim amaa ka bɛ nyaaŋa lihibu n-yan nyɛ din yan chɛ ka bɛ tiligi. Amaa, Maulana Karenga yɛliya:

Ti kaya ni taɣada nyɛla din mali soŋsim n-titi , d tu ni ti ti li jilima ti tɛha ni mini tuma zaŋ tum shee. Ti yi yɛli ni soŋsim,ti wuhimi ni niriba ni mi bɛ maŋ shɛm din bɛ ni be biɛhi shɛli dunia nyaaŋa zuɣu zaŋ jɛndi di tɛha mini zaŋ ku bukaata kaya ni taɣada yaɣa buyɔbu din pahi. Dina, di zaa nyaaŋa, kaya ni taɣada yɛlimuɣisira. Kamani kaya ni taɣada kahigibu ni di nyɛla binshɛɣu din gbaai tɛha mini niŋsim ka niriba namdi li bɛ maŋ maŋa, dari dibu,gubu ni lɛbiginsim zaŋ ti di maŋ maŋa ka zaŋ di maŋ maŋa n wuhi taarihi ni ninsalisili.

— Maulana Karenga, Africa kaya ni taɣada mini din chana ni din niŋ viɛnyɛla

African arts and crafts[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Sudan basket-tray, tabar of weaved natural plant fiber, in different colors
A Yombe sculpture (Louvre, Paris)

Africa mali kali "arts and crafts" viɛnyɛla. African arts and crafts mali balibu pam din nyɛ dari malibu mini binkɔbiri gbana dini. African arts and crafts shɛŋa n-lahi nyɛ bɛ ni zaŋ lɔba nima mali shɛli bɔmbu, lahi mɛbu,nɛma n-ti tabili Adiini binyɛra. Maulana Karenga yɛliya African art puuni, ni bini maa bɛ kpa talahi kamani nyɛvuli din be lala bini ŋɔ nambu ni. O daa lahi yɛliya ni bin maana zaa tu ni di mali taɣibu, ka di lala taɣibu ŋɔ puuni, talahi n-nyɛli ni di laɣim, ka zani n-tuhi, ka mali bukaata. O ni yɛli shɛli gbunni ni tooi wuhi ni "black art" nyɛla din mali bukaata ni biɛhigu taɣibu polo. "Black art" kuli bi tu ni di kuli bɛ niŋdi la “arts” ti gba kuli niŋdi mi amaa di tu mi ni ban maani lala binyɛra ŋɔ ʒi taɣibu din kpaŋsiri niriba ka tahiri taɣibu a bɛ tiŋgbana ni.[14][15]

BaKongo masks from the Kongo Central region

Arica kaya nima shɛŋa jɛndi la ninsalinima biɛhigu, ka paɣaba dimaŋa kamani nyingokɔriti leei dimaŋa nɛma din kpa talahi. Lala nyingokɔriti ŋɔ shɛŋa shɛŋa nyɛla bɛ ni zaŋ laɣikpahiri wɔri mini din ŋmani li m-mali shɛli. Lala n-lahi nyɛli,nin pɔbirisi nyɛla bɛ ni mali shɛŋa ni nahingban bɔbigu ka di kpa talahi pam n-ti shɛba kaya gbansabiloa tiŋgbani ni.[16] Ninpɔbirisi nyɛla bɛ ni pɔbiri shɛli laɣinsi pam ni ka di wuhiri kpiin kura mini alaama nima,bɛ ni dihi shɛŋa n-tabili hali ti tabili buɣa.[17][18]

A terra-cotta head sculpture (1100-1500) of the Yoruba, showing extraordinary naturalism. This head represents the oni or king of Ife.

Kaya "arts and craft" din be Africa kaya puuni, nyɛla din kpa talahi n-ti binyɛr'shɛŋa din labiri niŋda, n-ti pahi ban laɣim tab ni amiliya (Couples), paɣa ŋun mali bia, doo ŋun mali tɔbu bini bee binkɔbigu, ŋun be luɣishɛli polo bee sana. "Couples" ni tooi zani n-ti kpiin kura,ban zali (pili) tiŋsi, paɣa mini o yidana, bee jabihi. Lala bachi ŋɔ dii bi zooi ka di zani n-ti paɣa mini o yidana. Paɣa mini o bia ŋɔ wuhiri la paɣaba ni yu ni bɛ mali bihi shɛm. Di lahi zaani mi n-tiri ma tali ni ka niriba ban pahi nyɛ o bihi. Doo mini bidibi bini bee binkɔbigu ŋɔ wuhiri la kpaŋ maŋa mini kpɛŋ. Sani ni tooi nyɛ ŋun yi zuliya shɛli ni na bee ninvuɣi so ŋun yina tiŋgbani shɛli ni,ka di wuhiri fɔliŋga titali din be sani sa ni. Din bɔŋɔ zaa nyɛla kahigibu din yoli gbansabila "craft and art".

Folklore and religion[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Central mosque in Nouakchott, Mauritania

Kamani ninsali nima kaya ni taɣada zaa, gbansabila yɛlikura[19] mini Adiini zani mi n-ti biɛhigu ni kaya din be gbansabila tiŋgbani ni.[20]Kamani ninneesim mini kaya ni taɣada din pahi, "flood myths" nyɛla din gindi gbansabila yaɣa pam. Kaya ni taɣada mini Adiini nyɛla din laɣim luɣi yini ka kpe tabi ni viɛnyɛla gbaŋsabila kaya ni taɣada puuni. Ethiopia tiŋgbani ni, Asori mini Musulinsi n-nyɛ din din jɛndi Ethiopian kaya ni taɣada yɛltɔɣa,zalisi,mini maliŋ balibu ni din pahi pahi.[21] Kali lahabaya din yina Central African foragers, gumachuɣu, vuri yɔbu din nyɛ saandi ka yirina tia zuɣu, tia yi tahi n-niŋ voli, ka kom cheei n-yina kom din zoeri puuni ka zo n-gili tiŋgbani zaa.[22]

Kenyan boys and girls performing a traditional folklore dance

Salima gba nyɛla din mali bukaata pam gbansabila kaya ni taɣada puuni. Lahabya wuhiri la kaya ni taɣada balibu, ka guri ka taɣiri gbansabila lahabali nyɛ din yan gu ka taɣi gbansabila kaya ni taɣada zaa. Salima salimbu wuhiri la jilima mini kali wuhibu. Africa tiŋgbani ni, zuliya nima n-namdi lahabaya ka lahi yari li. Zuliya nima pubu din be Africa mali la salima salimbu balibu, din wuhiri nira ni be zuliya pubu shɛli ni. Sambani nima ban wumdi zuliya nima salima nyɛla din bɔri vihigu mini mini ninneesim n-tiri dihitabili din beni,ni lala zuliya maa ni dihi shɛli n-tabili, Di chɛ ka bɛ nyaroi din gahim ka be bɛ zuliya ni. di wuhiri ninsalisili mini dabiɛm din be lala zuliya nima ŋɔ ni, kamani yurilim, amiliya, n-ti pahi kpibu. Yɛlikuara lahi nyɛla binshɛli din wuhiri baŋsim lɛbu mini kpɛrigu. Di lahi nyɛla din tiri haŋkali di n ni soŋsi n-deei baŋsim yaɣa pam ka lahi wuhiri ni ti yɛlimuɣisira mini ti nasara nyɛla din niŋdi kaya ni taɣada kam puuni ni saha mini taarihi nima puuni.[23] Di tiri bihi soli ka bɛ bɔhimdi binyɛra mini din be biɛhigu ni. Salin li kam nyɛla din mali saɣisigu n-tiri niriba, kamani tuun viɛla gari shintoni.Dɛma yaɣili, salima nyɛla din kpɛri niriba nyaɣisim, yɛltɔɣa din pa ninsali nima sani. Saha nima pam puuni, lahabali maa ni yari n jɛndiri so yan nyɛla binkɔbigu ŋun yɛra,bee binshɛɣu din niŋ lahaʒibisi n-yan niŋ ninsala. Di mini salima kuli nyɛ dɛma maa zaa yoli, di tahi jilima na ka wuhiri nira ni be zuliya shɛli ni gbansabila tiŋgbani ni.[24] Gbansabila mali la salima balli dibaa ata: din jɛndi binkɔbiri mini biɛɣukulo kam salima. Binkɔbiri salima nyɛla din tooi zooi ka di nyɛ dɛma amaa a lahi wuhiri biɛhisuŋ di puuni. Binkɔbiri salima tooi puri la buyi, dini n-nyɛ ka binkɔbigu zani ninsali zaani ka wuhi haŋkali din ni tooi wuhi sali biɛhigu ni binkɔbi kara ban gbahiri ninsali nima. Binkɔbiri salima puuni, binkɔbi so kuli yan tumdi la tuun yini din ni bee lahabali kam ni, di zuɣu di bi tu ni ban wumdi mali yɛlimuɣisirili zaŋ chaŋ binkɔbiri ŋɔ ni yan tumdi tuun shɛli salima ŋɔ ni. Binkɔbiri ni tooi zooi ka bɛ za zaashee shɛli shɛŋa n-nyɛ; Sooŋa tooi nyɛla ŋun gabiri bee n-yohimdi niriba, ka lahi mali haŋkali, Ka kunduŋ gba mi nya sooŋa ni yohimdi so. BInkɔbi kara tooi nyɛla ban tiri bɛ taba wahala,diri barilim. Bɛ ni timdi shɛba din ni n-tooi nyɛ noonsi. Biɛɣu kulo kam salima n-nyɛ din mali yaa pam, ka bɛ chani ni kpɛrigu, di wuhiri la din beni dakulo kam biɛhigu ni ni wahala shɛŋa gbansabila ni dira bin tiŋgbani ni. Lala salima ŋɔ tooi jɛndiri la kum/din n-pooi, zo n-tiligi ka che kpibu, paɣa ni doo taba baŋbu viɛnyɛla, ni yɛltɔɣa shɛŋa din be daŋ ni,ka bɛ tooi yiini yila di yi ti niŋ ka salima maa niŋ nyaɣisim.[25]

Africa nima salima tooi mali la di ni doya shɛm. Tiŋkpan nima tooi mali la bɛ ni laɣim di shɛli dabilisi puli ni n-ti wum ka salim salima. Salim salindiba tooi mali la bɛ ni mali yɛltɔɣa shɛli m-piini salima ni di naabu, "Ugai Itha"n va ban wumdi salima maa haŋkali n-niŋ din ni, n-ti pahi "Rukirika" din wuhiri salima maa naabu.[26][27] Salinli maa yaɣili kam chani mi ni niriba ayi, din yɛn chɛ ka di bi gabi ban wumdi maa. Salinli kam puuni, ban be yɛla ni nyɛla ban ni tooi nya nasara bɛ dim nima sani.Binyɛr'gahinda daa njyɛla din be gbansabila salima ni. shɛhira, kalimbɔhi, dala, ka bɛ mali li ka di kumdi binkɔbiri kumsim kɔŋkɔba. Di kumdi m-pari taba gba nyɛla din daa chɛ ka ban wumdi maa haŋkali be din ni.[28][29]

Situra[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Ashanti Kente cloth patterns
A woman in Kenya wearing kanga

Ethiopia paɣaba kaya neen yɛra nyɛla bɛ ni mali bɛ ni booni shɛli "schema" m-mali shɛli ka bɛ mali m-maani habesha kemis.Lala neenpiɛla zaa ŋɔ nyɛla Ethopian nima zaa neen yɛra ka di nyɛla bɛ zaa saɣi mi n-ti li amaa ka di mali kɔŋkɔba pam kamani Oromo nima ban yina Bale tooi zooi ka bɛ yɛri la gbana ka Afaris mi yɛri bɛ ni zaŋ gumdi m-mali shɛli.

Kundivihira[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

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  2. Idang, Gabriel E (2015). "African culture and values". Phronimon 16.
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  6. Nayeri, Farah (2018-11-21). "Museums in France Should Return African Treasures, Report Says" (en-US). The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/21/arts/design/france-museums-africa-savoy-sarr-report.html.
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  15. Maulana Karenga's Black Cultural Nationalism - 1037 Words | 123 Help Me.
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  24. Florence, Namulundah. The Bukusu of Kenya: Folktales, Culture and Social Identities. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic, 2011. Print.
  25. Error on call to Şablon:cite web: Parameters url and title must be specified.
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