Candlemas

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Candlemas
holiday, Christian holy day, public holiday
Pahi laGreat Feasts of the Orthodox Church Mali niŋ
Feast dayFebruary 2 Mali niŋ
CommemoratesPresentation of Jesus at the Temple Mali niŋ
Dabisili shɛli dini niŋdi yuuni puliniFebruary 2, February 15 Mali niŋ
Intangible cultural heritage statusNational Inventory of Intangible Cultural Heritage in France Mali niŋ

Candlemas, shɛba lahi mi li la "Feast of the Presentation of Jesus Christ", "Feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary", bee "Feast of the Holy Encounter", nyɛla dolodolo nim vuhim dabisili bɛn mali niŋdi presentation of Jesus at the Temple. Di nyɛla din jɛndi Jesus in Luke 2:22–40. Leviticus puuni 12, paɣa nyɛla bɛn daa yɛn niŋ so kashii ka daa zaŋ "lamb" lee burnt offering, ka "young pigeon" bee gbun'yaɣ'o (dove) mi lee sin offering, biɛɣ'pihita ni ata doo circumcision nyaaŋa. Di nyɛla din luri silimin gɔli February dabaa ayi dali, lala dabisili ŋɔ nyɛ 40th day (postpartum period) mini ChristmasEpiphany naaibu.[1] Di nyɛla kali zaŋ n-ti dolodolo nim shɛba tiŋgbani shɛŋa ni bɛ yihi bɛ Christmas decorations dabisili shɛli din pahiri pinaayi dali yuŋ (Epiphany Eve),[2] dolodolo shɛba ban be tiŋgbani shɛŋa ni dabam nyɛla ban yihiri li Candlemas nyaaŋa.[3][4] Candlemas dali, dolodolo nim pam (Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholics, n-ti pahi Lutherans, Anglicans mini Methodists) nyɛla ban gba kpaɣiri "candles" chani bɛ jama duu n-ti suhi bo lala yuuni maa anfaani;[5][6] dolodolo nim nyɛla ban mali dihitabili ni "candles" ŋɔ nyɛla shɛhiri li zaŋ n-ti Jesus Christ ŋun nyɛ dunia niira ŋɔ.[7]

Taarihi[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Candlemas day by Marianne Stokes, 1901

"Feast of the Presentation" bee maŋ kashii niŋbu nyɛla chuɣu kurili zaŋ n-ti dolodolo nima. Pilgrim Egeria nyɛla ŋun yɛli din puhiri shɛm Jerusalem yuuni 380s:[8]

Amaa maŋ kashii niŋbu chuɣu nyɛla chuɣu titali ka puhiri ni jilima. Lala dabisili ŋɔ mali la Anastasis ka binshɛɣu kam kuli niŋdi ni suhupiɛlli kamani Easter ni kuli niŋdi shɛm. Dolodolo karimba kpamba zaa nyɛla ban wuhiri "Gospel" dabisili shɛli din pahiri pihinahi din daa niŋ ka Joseph mini Mary ʒi "Lord" na "Temple" ka Simeon mini Anna daa nyɛ o.[9]

The presentation of the Lord in the temple by Fra Bartolomeo, 1516

Christmas daa nyɛla chuɣu shɛli bɛn puhiri West silimin gɔli December biɛɣ'pishi ni anu dali yuuni AD 354 din daa niŋ ka Pope Liberiu nim zali li. Biɛɣ'pihinahi nyaaŋa silimin gɔli December biɛɣ'pishi ni anu dali nyɛ silimin gɔli February dabaa ayi dali. Roman Empire, Roman consul Justin nyɛ ban daa piligi Hypapante chuɣu puhibu.[8]

Pope Gelasius I (492–496) nyɛla ban daa niŋ kpaŋmaŋ pam ni chuɣu ŋɔ yɛligibu. Lahabali wuhiya ni di nyɛla din niŋ talahi Plague of Justinian saha yuuni 541 pɔi ka daa kpɛ West.[8] Ancient Romans nyɛla ban puhiri Lupercalia silimin gɔli February sunsuun mali paɣiri Lupercus, naawuni zaŋ n-ti duɣim mini "shepherds". Feralia chuɣu puhibu gba nyɛla din niŋdi lala saha maa.[10]

Lupercalia nyɛla bɛn zaŋdi shɛli n-ti maŋ kashii niŋbu chuɣu bali lee Cardinal Caesar Baronius, 16th century[11][12] ka di daliri nyɛla churi ayi ŋɔ zaa nyɛla maŋ kashii niŋbu churi. Amaa din tooi pa lala dama Lupercalia chuɣu ŋɔ daa na ʒini puhi Jerusalem, ni koŋko mi ka niri ni tooi nya Jesus maŋ kashii niŋbu chuɣu ŋɔ puhibu.[citation needed]

Din daa niŋ ka Gelasius yɛli Andromachus yɛltɔɣa, o daa bi zaŋ yaa ka yɛli ni Lupercalia ka shɛli dama di gba nyɛla dolodolo nim chuɣu.[11] Din bɔŋɔ ni tooi lɛbi shɛhira wuhiri ni o nyɛla Roman aristocracy.[13] Centuries nyaaŋa kamani yuuni 1392 bee 1400, Virgin Mary nahingbaŋ shɛli bɛn daa zaŋ niŋ maa daa nyɛla Guanche piɛ guliba ayi ni daa nya shɛli ka di be island n-ti Tenerife (Canary Islands).[14] Din daa niŋ ka bɛ nya "Virgin" ŋɔ nyaaŋa ka bɛ daa piligi chuɣu ŋɔ puhibu ni Marian shiifa yuuni 1497, din daa niŋ ka Alonso Fernández de Lugo nim puhi Candlemas chuɣu ka zaŋ li jɛndi "Virgin Mary" din nyɛ maŋ kashii niŋbu chuɣu puhiri silimin gɔli February dabaa ayi dali.[15] Pɔi ka Tenerife, Guanche nim daa puhi chuɣu gili shiifa zaŋ n-ti "Virgin" chuɣu yuli booni Beñesmen puuni silimin gɔli August. Di bɔŋɔ n-daa nyɛ bindira kpaɣibu di ka nyu ka di wuhiri yuuni piligu. Saha chuɣu zaŋ n-ti Virgin of Candelaria din be Canary Islands nyɛla bɛn niŋdi shɛli pahira silimin gɔli February dabaa ayi dali. Taarihi niŋdiba shɛba yɛliya ni chuɣu ŋɔ puhibu nyɛla jilima zaŋ n-ti "Virgin".[16]

Swedish mini Finnish Lutheran churches, Candlemas nyɛla din piligi(tum 1774), din nyɛla bɛn niŋdi shɛli alahiri dabisili kam silimin gɔli February dabaa ayi dali mini o dabaa anii dali gbaai yihi di yi niŋ ka lala alahiri ŋɔ nyɛ alahiri shɛli din bahindi nyaaŋa pɔi ni Lent, din nyɛ Shrove Sunday bee Quinquagesima (Tɛmplet:Lang-sv, Tɛmplet:Lang-fi).[17]

Customs[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

France and Belgium[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Crêpes are a traditional food on La Chandeleur

Catholic dolodolo duu shɛŋa din be France, Belgium, n-ti pahi Swiss Romandy nyɛla ban puhiri Candlemas (French: La Chandeleur, Tɛmplet:Lang-nl) silimin gɔli February dabaa ayi dali. Ban su di fukumsi yɛliya ni bɛ di zaŋ "manger scenes" labi hali ni Candlemas din nyɛ chuɣu zaŋ n-ti Christmas cycle.[citation needed]

Candlemas din be lala tiŋgbana ŋɔ ni gba nyɛla crêpes.[18][19] Di nyɛla zaɣa gbuli laasabu (round shape).

Belgium di nyɛla kali ni sokam di "pancakes" ka mali dihitabili ni "clear sky" din be Candlemas nyɛla din wuhiri anfooni yuuni.[20]

Lihimi m-pahi[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

Kundivihira[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]

  1. Knecht, Friedrich Justus (1910). A Practical Commentary on Holy Scripture (in English). B. Herder. p. 410. Retrieved 27 December 2016. We keep a feast on the 2nd of February, forty days after Christmas, in memory of our Lord's Presentation in the Temple. This feast has several names. First, it is known as the Feast of the Presentation of our Lord Jesus. Secondly, it is called the Feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary. But the usual and popular name for this Feast is Candlemas-day, because on this day candles are blessed before Mass, and there takes place a procession with lighted candles. Candles are blessed and lighted on this particular feast.
  2. A Study Guide for William Shakespeare's "Twelfth Night" (in English) (2nd ed.). Cengage Learning. 2016. p. 29. ISBN 9781410361349. Twelfth Night saw people feasting and taking down Christmas decorations.
  3. Edworthy, Niall (2008). The Curious World of Christmas (in English). Penguin Group. p. 83. ISBN 9780399534577. The time-honoured epoch for taking down Christmas decorations from Church and house in Candlemas Day, February 2nd...Candlemas in old times represented the end of the Christmas holidays, which, when 'fine old leisure' reigned, were far longer than they are now.
  4. Roud, Steve (31 January 2008). The English Year (in English). Penguin Books Limited. p. 690. ISBN 9780141919270. As indicated in Herrick's poem, quoted above, in the mid seventeenth century Christmas decorations were expected to stay in place until Candlemas (2 February), and this remained the norm until the nineteenth century.
  5. Hothersall, Barbara. Candlemas – Festival of Light (English). Fulwood Methodist Church Magazine. “In some countries special candles are brought along to the blessing by the worshippers. These are often very elaborate and are highly treasured. Afterwards they are taken home and kept to be lighted at times of stress – during storms, in sickrooms and at the bedside of the dying.”
  6. Pappas, Christopher A. (18 January 2012). Ecumenical Candlemas (Feast of the Presentation). Holy Trinity Anglican Church.
  7. Mazar, Peter (6 March 2015). To Crown the Year: Decorating the Church Through the Seasons (in English) (2nd ed.). Liturgy Training Publications. p. 253. ISBN 9781618331328.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Holweck, Frederick (1908). "Candlemas". The Catholic Encyclopedia. 3. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  9. The Pilgrimage of S. Silvia of Aquitania to the Holy Places (1896).
  10. Dumézil, Georges. Archaic Roman Religion. Vol 1. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1966. p. 366
  11. 11.0 11.1 (January 1931) "The Lupercalia in the Fifth Century". Classical Philology 26 (1): 60–69. DOI:10.1086/361308.
  12. (la) Barri Ducis, L.Guerin, Annales Ecclesiastici Caesaris Baroni, 186, t.
  13. Demacopoulos, George E. (2013). The Invention of Peter: Apostolic Discourse and Papal Authority in Late Antiquity. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 74–80. ISBN 9780812245172. JSTOR j.ctt3fj4j1.
  14. Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria (es).
  15. GaldÓn, Sonia. "Medio siglo de fervor en Candelaria" (es). La Opinión de Tenerife. https://www.laopinion.es/afondo/2009/02/09/medio-siglo-fervor-candelaria/197498.html.
  16. Álvarez Delgado, Juan (1949). Sistema de Numeración Norteafricano. A. Numerales Canarios.- B. Sistema Numeral Norteafricano: Caracteres. Estudio de lingüística comparada sobre el sistema de numeración y cómputo de los aborígenes de Canarias (in Spanish). Madrid: Instituto Antonio de Nebrija (CSIC). OCLC 459382352.
  17. Oja, Heikki (2007). Aikakirja 2007 (in Finnish). Helsinki: Almanach office of Helsinki University. p. 147. ISBN 978-952-10-3221-9.
  18. Charlton, Annette (2019-10-01). La Chandeleur or Candlemas: A French Tradition.
  19. Collet, Natalie (28 January 2020). La Chandeleur.
  20. Candlemas, a celebration that dates back to the dawn of time and lives on in the Judeo-Christian tradition and in our folklore (18 January 2019).

Bibliography[mali niŋ | mali mi di yibu sheena n-niŋ]